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  1. Traditionally, prototype hardware is built for validation testing to ensure battery systems design changes meet vehicle-level requirements, which is expensive both in cost and time. Virtual engineering (VE) of battery systems for electric vehicle (EV) propulsion offers a reduced-cost alternative to the traditional development process and uses multi-scale modeling to virtually probe the impact of design changes in a particular part on the overall performance of the system. This allows for rapid iteration over multiple design spaces, without committing to build hardware. This perspective article discusses current trends in VE for EV applications and proposes improvements to accelerate EV adoption.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  4. This paper systematizes knowledge about secure software supply chain patterns. It identifes four stages of a software supply chain attack and proposes three security properties crucial for a secured supply chain: transparency, validity, and separation. The paper de- scribes current security approaches and maps them to the proposed security properties, including research ideas and case studies of supply chains in practice. It discusses the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches relative to known attacks and details the various security frameworks put out to ensure the security of the software supply chain. Finally, the paper highlights potential gaps in actor and operation-centered supply chain security techniques. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  6. Deep neural networks achieve state-of-the-art performance on many tasks, but require increasingly complex architectures and costly training procedures. Engineers can reduce costs by reusing a pre-trained model (PTM) and fine-tuning it for their own tasks. To facilitate software reuse, engineers collaborate around model hubs, collections of PTMs and datasets organized by problem domain. Although model hubs are now comparable in popularity and size to other software ecosystems, the associated PTM supply chain has not yet been examined from a software engineering perspective. We present an empirical study of artifacts and security features in 8 model hubs. We indicate the potential threat models and show that the existing defenses are insufficient for ensuring the security of PTMs. We compare PTM and traditional supply chains, and propose directions for further measurements and tools to increase the reliability of the PTM supply chain. 
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  7. Over recent years, great efforts have been made to push the limits of layered transition metal oxides for secondary battery cathodes. This is particularly true for overall capacity, which has reached a terminal theoretical value for many materials. One avenue for increasing this capacity during charging is the intercalation of anions post cation deintercalation. This work investigates the charging mechanism of the P3-Na0.5Ni0.25 Mn0.75O2 cathode material through cation (Na) deintercalation and anion (ClO4) intercalation by means of density functional theory. The calculations corroborate experimental findings of increased capacity (135 mAh g-1 to 180 mAh g-1) through the intercalation of anions. However, this work demonstrates that a process of simultaneous cation deintercalation/anion intercalation is the primary charging mechanism, with charge compensation reactions of Ni2+/Ni4+ and O2-/O- occurring within the cathode material. To elucidate this simultaneous process, a novel method for computationally determining anion voltage in which one must consider full electrolyte interactions is proposed. Based on the results, it is believed that a simultaneous cation deintercalation/anion intercalation mechanism provides one potential avenue for the discovery of the next generation of secondary batteries. 
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