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    KELT-9b is an ultra-hot Jupiter observed to be undergoing extreme mass-loss. Its A0-type host star has a radiative envelope, which makes its surface layers prone to retaining recently accreted material. To search for potential signs of planetary material polluting the stellar surface, we carry out the most comprehensive chemical characterization of KELT-9 to-date. New element detections include Na and Y, which had previously been detected in the ultra-hot Jupiter but not studied in the star; these detections complete the set of ten elements measured in both star and planet. In comparing KELT-9 with similar open cluster stars we find no strong anomalies. This finding is consistent with calculations of photospheric pollution accounting for stellar mixing and using observationally estimated KELT-9b mass-loss rates. We also rule out recent, short-lived intensive mass transfer such as the stellar ingestion of an Earth-mass exomoon.

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  2. Abstract

    Populating the exoplanet mass–radius diagram in order to identify the underlying relationship that governs planet composition is driving an interdisciplinary effort within the exoplanet community. The discovery of hot super-Earths—a high-temperature, short-period subset of the super-Earth planet population—has presented many unresolved questions concerning the formation, evolution, and composition of rocky planets. We report the discovery of a transiting, ultra-short-period hot super-Earth orbitingTOI-1075(TIC351601843), a nearby (d= 61.4 pc) late-K/early-M-dwarf star, using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. The newly discovered planet has a radius of 1.7910.081+0.116Rand an orbital period of 0.605 day (14.5 hr). We precisely measure the planet mass to be 9.951.30+1.36Musing radial velocity measurements obtained with the Planet Finder Spectrograph mounted on the Magellan II telescope. Our radial velocity data also show a long-term trend, suggesting an additional planet in the system. While TOI-1075 b is expected to have a substantial H/He atmosphere given its size relative to the radius gap, its high density (9.321.85+2.05g cm−3) is likely inconsistent with this possibility. We explore TOI-1075 b’s location relative to the M-dwarf radius valley, evaluate the planet’s prospects for atmospheric characterization, and discuss potential planet formation mechanisms. Studying the TOI-1075 system in the broader context of ultra-short-period planetary systems is necessary for testing planet formation and evolution theories and density-enhancing mechanisms and for future atmospheric and surface characterization studies via emission spectroscopy with the JWST.

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