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  1. Abstract The physical properties of transiting exoplanets are connected with the physical properties of their host stars. We present a homogeneous spectroscopic analysis based on the spectra of FGK-type stars observed with the Hydra spectrograph on the WIYN telescope. We derived the effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities, for 81 stars observed by K2 and 33 by Kepler 1. We constructed an Fe i and ii line list that is adequate for the analysis of R ∼ 18,000 spectra covering 6050–6350 Å and adopted the spectroscopic technique based on equivalent-width measurements. The calculations were done in LTE using Kurucz model atmospheres and the qoyllur-quipu ( q 2 ) package. We validated our methodology via an analysis of a benchmark solar twin and solar proxies, which are used as a solar reference. We estimated the effects that including Zeeman-sensitive Fe i lines have on the derived stellar parameters for young and possibly active stars in our sample and found them not to be significant. Stellar masses and radii were derived by combining the stellar parameters with Gaia EDR3 and V magnitudes and isochrones. The measured stellar radii have a 4.2% median internal precision, leading to a median internal uncertainty of 4.4% in the derived planetary radii. With our sample of 83 confirmed planets orbiting K2 host stars, the radius gap near R planet ∼ 1.9 R ⊕ is detected, in agreement with previous findings. Relations between the planetary radius, orbital period, and metallicity are explored and these also confirm previous findings for Kepler 1 systems. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 30, 2024

    KELT-9b is an ultra-hot Jupiter observed to be undergoing extreme mass-loss. Its A0-type host star has a radiative envelope, which makes its surface layers prone to retaining recently accreted material. To search for potential signs of planetary material polluting the stellar surface, we carry out the most comprehensive chemical characterization of KELT-9 to-date. New element detections include Na and Y, which had previously been detected in the ultra-hot Jupiter but not studied in the star; these detections complete the set of ten elements measured in both star and planet. In comparing KELT-9 with similar open cluster stars we find no strong anomalies. This finding is consistent with calculations of photospheric pollution accounting for stellar mixing and using observationally estimated KELT-9b mass-loss rates. We also rule out recent, short-lived intensive mass transfer such as the stellar ingestion of an Earth-mass exomoon.

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  3. Abstract

    Characterizing the masses and orbits of near-Earth-mass planets is crucial for interpreting observations from future direct imaging missions (e.g., HabEx, LUVOIR). Therefore, the Exoplanet Science Strategy report recommended further research so future extremely precise radial velocity surveys could contribute to the discovery and/or characterization of near-Earth-mass planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars prior to the launch of these future imaging missions. Newman et al. (2023) simulated such 10 yr surveys under various telescope architectures, demonstrating they can precisely measure the masses of potentially habitable Earth-mass planets in the absence of stellar variability. Here, we investigate the effect of stellar variability on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the planet mass measurements in these simulations. We find that correlated noise due to active regions has the largest effect on the observed mass S/N, reducing the S/N by a factor of ∼5.5 relative to the no-variability scenario; granulation reduces by a factor of ∼3, while p-mode oscillations has little impact on the proposed survey strategies. We show that in the presence of correlated noise, 5 cm s−1instrumental precision offers little improvement over 10 cm s−1precision, highlighting the need to mitigate astrophysical variability. With our noise models, extending the survey to 15 yr doubles the number of Earth-analogs with mass S/N > 10, and reaching this threshold for any Earth-analog orbiting a star >0.76Min a 10 yr survey would require an increase in the number of observations per star from that in Newman et al. (2023).

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  4. Abstract The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has recently initiated its fifth survey generation (SDSS-V), with a central focus on stellar spectroscopy. In particular, SDSS-V's Milky Way Mapper program will deliver multiepoch optical and near-infrared spectra for more than 5 × 10 6 stars across the entire sky, covering a large range in stellar mass, surface temperature, evolutionary stage, and age. About 10% of those spectra will be of hot stars of OBAF spectral types, for whose analysis no established survey pipelines exist. Here we present the spectral analysis algorithm, ZETA-PAYNE, developed specifically to obtain stellar labels from SDSS-V spectra of stars with these spectral types and drawing on machine-learning tools. We provide details of the algorithm training, its test on artificial spectra, and its validation on two control samples of real stars. Analysis with ZETA-PAYNE leads to only modest internal uncertainties in the near-IR with APOGEE (optical with BOSS): 3%–10% (1%–2%) for T eff , 5%–30% (5%–25%) for v sin i , 1.7–6.3 km s −1 (0.7–2.2 km s −1 ) for radial velocity, <0.1 dex (<0.05 dex) for log g , and 0.4–0.5 dex (0.1 dex) for [M/H] of the star, respectively. We find a good agreement between atmospheric parameters of OBAF-type stars when inferred from their high- and low-resolution optical spectra. For most stellar labels, the APOGEE spectra are (far) less informative than the BOSS spectra of these stars, while log g , v sin i , and [M/H] are in most cases too uncertain for meaningful astrophysical interpretation. This makes BOSS low-resolution optical spectra better for stellar labels of OBAF-type stars, unless the latter are subject to high levels of extinction. 
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  5. Abstract

    We present the discovery of TOI-5205b, a transiting Jovian planet orbiting a solar metallicity M4V star, which was discovered using Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite photometry and then confirmed using a combination of precise radial velocities, ground-based photometry, spectra, and speckle imaging. TOI-5205b has one of the highest mass ratios for M-dwarf planets, with a mass ratio of almost 0.3%, as it orbits a host star that is just 0.392 ± 0.015M. Its planetary radius is 1.03 ± 0.03RJ, while the mass is 1.08 ± 0.06MJ. Additionally, the large size of the planet orbiting a small star results in a transit depth of ∼7%, making it one of the deepest transits of a confirmed exoplanet orbiting a main-sequence star. The large transit depth makes TOI-5205b a compelling target to probe its atmospheric properties, as a means of tracing the potential formation pathways. While there have been radial-velocity-only discoveries of giant planets around mid-M dwarfs, this is the first transiting Jupiter with a mass measurement discovered around such a low-mass host star. The high mass of TOI-5205b stretches conventional theories of planet formation and disk scaling relations that cannot easily recreate the conditions required to form such planets.

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  6. Abstract

    Populating the exoplanet mass–radius diagram in order to identify the underlying relationship that governs planet composition is driving an interdisciplinary effort within the exoplanet community. The discovery of hot super-Earths—a high-temperature, short-period subset of the super-Earth planet population—has presented many unresolved questions concerning the formation, evolution, and composition of rocky planets. We report the discovery of a transiting, ultra-short-period hot super-Earth orbitingTOI-1075(TIC351601843), a nearby (d= 61.4 pc) late-K/early-M-dwarf star, using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. The newly discovered planet has a radius of 1.7910.081+0.116Rand an orbital period of 0.605 day (14.5 hr). We precisely measure the planet mass to be 9.951.30+1.36Musing radial velocity measurements obtained with the Planet Finder Spectrograph mounted on the Magellan II telescope. Our radial velocity data also show a long-term trend, suggesting an additional planet in the system. While TOI-1075 b is expected to have a substantial H/He atmosphere given its size relative to the radius gap, its high density (9.321.85+2.05g cm−3) is likely inconsistent with this possibility. We explore TOI-1075 b’s location relative to the M-dwarf radius valley, evaluate the planet’s prospects for atmospheric characterization, and discuss potential planet formation mechanisms. Studying the TOI-1075 system in the broader context of ultra-short-period planetary systems is necessary for testing planet formation and evolution theories and density-enhancing mechanisms and for future atmospheric and surface characterization studies via emission spectroscopy with the JWST.

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  7. Abstract APOGEE is a high-resolution ( R ∼ 22,000), near-infrared, multi-epoch, spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way. The second generation of the APOGEE project, APOGEE-2, includes an expansion of the survey to the Southern Hemisphere called APOGEE-2S. This expansion enabled APOGEE to perform a fully panoramic mapping of all of the main regions of the Milky Way; in particular, by operating in the H band, APOGEE is uniquely able to probe the dust-hidden inner regions of the Milky Way that are best accessed from the Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we present the targeting strategy of APOGEE-2S, with special attention to documenting modifications to the original, previously published plan. The motivation for these changes is explained as well as an assessment of their effectiveness in achieving their intended scientific objective. In anticipation of this being the last paper detailing APOGEE targeting, we present an accounting of all such information complete through the end of the APOGEE-2S project; this includes several main survey programs dedicated to exploration of major stellar populations and regions of the Milky Way, as well as a full list of programs contributing to the APOGEE database through allocations of observing time by the Chilean National Time Allocation Committee and the Carnegie Institution for Science. This work was presented along with a companion article, Beaton et al. (2021), presenting the final target selection strategy adopted for APOGEE-2 in the Northern Hemisphere. 
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  8. Abstract The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 (APOGEE-2) is a dual-hemisphere, near-infrared (NIR), spectroscopic survey with the goal of producing a chemodynamical mapping of the Milky Way. The targeting for APOGEE-2 is complex and has evolved with time. In this paper, we present the updates and additions to the initial targeting strategy for APOGEE-2N presented in Zasowski et al. (2017). These modifications come in two implementation modes: (i) “Ancillary Science Programs” competitively awarded to Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV PIs through proposal calls in 2015 and 2017 for the pursuit of new scientific avenues outside the main survey, and (ii) an effective 1.5 yr expansion of the survey, known as the Bright Time Extension (BTX), made possible through accrued efficiency gains over the first years of the APOGEE-2N project. For the 23 distinct ancillary programs, we provide descriptions of the scientific aims, target selection, and how to identify these targets within the APOGEE-2 sample. The BTX permitted changes to the main survey strategy, the inclusion of new programs in response to scientific discoveries or to exploit major new data sets not available at the outset of the survey design, and expansions of existing programs to enhance their scientific success and reach. After describing the motivations, implementation, and assessment of these programs, we also leave a summary of lessons learned from nearly a decade of APOGEE-1 and APOGEE-2 survey operations. A companion paper, F. Santana et al. (submitted; AAS29036), provides a complementary presentation of targeting modifications relevant to APOGEE-2 operations in the Southern Hemisphere. 
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