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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 10, 2023
  2. When isotopes of carbon are fed to photosynthesizing leaves, metabolites of the Calvin–Benson cycle (CBC) are rapidly labeled initially, but then the rate of labeling slows considerably, raising questions about the integration of the CBC within leaf metabolism. We have used 2-h time courses of labeling of Camelina sativa leaf metabolites to test models of 12 C washout when the CO 2 source is rapidly switched to 13 CO 2 . Fitting exponential functions to the time course of CBC metabolites, we found evidence for three temporally distinct processes contributing to the labeling but none for metabolically inactive pools. Wemore »next modeled the data of all metabolites by 13 C isotopically nonstationary metabolic flux analysis, testing a variety of flux networks. In the model that best explains measured data, three processes determine CBC metabolite labeling. First is fixation of incoming 13 CO 2 ; second is dilution by weakly labeled carbon in cytosolic glucose reentering the CBC following oxidative pentose phosphate pathway reactions, which forms a shunt bypassing much of the CBC. Third, very weakly labeled carbon from the vacuole further dilutes the labeling. This model predicts the shunt proceeds at about 5% of the rate of net CO 2 fixation and explains the three phases of labeling. In showing the interconnection of three compartments, we have drawn a more complete picture of how carbon moves through photosynthetic metabolism in a way that integrates the CBC, cytosolic sugar pools, glucose-6-phosphate shunt, and vacuolar sugars into a single system.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 15, 2023
  3. An intriguing new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials based on metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) has recently been developed that displays electrical conductivity, a rarity among these nanoporous materials. The emergence of conducting MOFs raises questions about their fundamental electronic properties, but few studies exist in this regard. Here, we present an integrated theory and experimental investigation to probe the effects of metal substitution on the charge transport properties of M-HITP, where M = Ni or Pt and HITP = 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene. The results show that the identity of the M-HITP majority charge carrier can be changed without intentional introduction of electronically activemore »dopants. We observe that the selection of the metal ion substantially affects charge transport. Using the known structure, Ni-HITP, we synthesized a new amorphous material, a-Pt-HITP, which although amorphous is nevertheless found to be porous upon desolvation. Importantly, this new material exhibits p-type charge transport behavior, unlike Ni-HITP, which displays n-type charge transport. These results demonstrate that both p- and n-type materials can be achieved within the same MOF topology through appropriate choice of the metal ion.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 14, 2023
  4. Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of key hospital units associated with emergency care of both routine emergency and pandemic (COVID-19) patients under capacity enhancing strategies. Methods: This investigation was conducted using whole-hospital, resource-constrained, patient-based, stochastic, discrete-event, simulation models of a generic 200-bed urban U.S. tertiary hospital serving routine emergency and COVID-19 patients. Systematically designed numerical experiments were conducted to provide generalizable insights into how hospital functionality may be affected by the care of COVID-19 pandemic patients along specially designated care paths, under changing pandemic situations, from getting ready to turning all of itsmore »resources to pandemic care. Results: Several insights are presented. For example, each day of reduction in average ICU length of stay increases intensive care unit patient throughput by up to 24% for high COVID-19 daily patient arrival levels. The potential of 5 specific interventions and 2 critical shifts in care strategies to significantly increase hospital capacity is also described. Conclusions: These estimates enable hospitals to repurpose space, modify operations, implement crisis standards of care, collaborate with other health care facilities, or request external support, thereby increasing the likelihood that arriving patients will find an open staffed bed when 1 is needed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 10, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 10, 2022
  6. The Mozambique tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ) is a fascinating taxon for evolutionary and ecological research. It is an important food fish and one of the most widely distributed tilapias. Because males grow faster than females, genetically male tilapia are preferred in aquaculture. However, studies of sex determination and sex control in O . mossambicus have been hindered by the limited characterization of the genome. To address this gap, we assembled a high-quality genome of O . mossambicus , using a combination of high coverage of Illumina and Nanopore reads, coupled with Hi-C and RNA-Seq data. Our genome assembly spansmore »1,007 Mb with a scaffold N50 of 11.38 Mb. We successfully anchored and oriented 98.6% of the genome on 22 linkage groups (LGs). Based on re-sequencing data for male and female fishes from three families, O . mossambicus segregates both an XY system on LG14 and a ZW system on LG3. The sex-patterned SNPs shared by two XY families narrowed the sex determining regions to ∼3 Mb on LG14. The shared sex-patterned SNPs included two deleterious missense mutations in ahnak and rhbdd1 , indicating the possible roles of these two genes in sex determination. This annotated chromosome-level genome assembly and identification of sex determining regions represents a valuable resource to help understand the evolution of genetic sex determination in tilapias.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 8, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 10, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 3, 2022
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 6, 2022
  10. Abstract In recent years, there have been significant advances in multimessenger astronomy due to the discovery of the first, and so far only confirmed, gravitational wave event with a simultaneous electromagnetic (EM) counterpart, as well as improvements in numerical simulations, gravitational wave (GW) detectors, and transient astronomy. This has led to the exciting possibility of performing joint analyses of the GW and EM data, providing additional constraints on fundamental properties of the binary progenitor and merger remnant. Here, we present a new Bayesian framework that allows inference of these properties, while taking into account the systematic modeling uncertainties that arisemore »when mapping from GW binary progenitor properties to photometric light curves. We extend the relative binning method presented in Zackay et al. to include extrinsic GW parameters for fast analysis of the GW signal. The focus of our EM framework is on light curves arising from r -process nucleosynthesis in the ejected material during and after merger, the so-called kilonova, and particularly on black hole−neutron star systems. As a case study, we examine the recent detection of GW190425, where the primary object is consistent with being either a black hole or a neutron star. We show quantitatively how improved mapping between binary progenitor and outflow properties, and/or an increase in EM data quantity and quality are required in order to break degeneracies in the fundamental source parameters.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022