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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Inner-shell photoelectron spectroscopy provides an element-specific probe of molecular structure, as core-electron binding energies are sensitive to the chemical environment. Short-wavelength femtosecond light sources, such as Free-Electron Lasers (FELs), even enable time-resolved site-specific investigations of molecular photochemistry. Here, we study the ultraviolet photodissociation of the prototypical chiral molecule 1-iodo-2-methylbutane, probed by extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) through the ultrafast evolution of the iodine 4d binding energy. Methodologically, we employ electron-ion partial covariance imaging as a technique to isolate otherwise elusive features in a two-dimensional photoelectron spectrum arising from different photofragmentation pathways. The experimental andmore »theoretical results for the time-resolved electron spectra of the 4d 3/2 and 4d 5/2 atomic and molecular levels that are disentangled by this method provide a key step towards studying structural and chemical changes from a specific spectator site.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 25, 2023
  4. Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Joanna (Ed.)
    Chemical synapses exhibit a diverse array of internal mechanisms that affect the dynamics of transmission efficacy. Many of these processes, such as release of neurotransmitter and vesicle recycling, depend strongly on activity-dependent influx and accumulation of Ca 2+ . To model how each of these processes may affect the processing of information in neural circuits, and how their dysfunction may lead to disease states, requires a computationally efficient modelling framework, capable of generating accurate phenomenology without incurring a heavy computational cost per synapse. Constructing a phenomenologically realistic model requires the precise characterization of the timing and probability of neurotransmitter release.more »Difficulties arise in that functional forms of instantaneous release rate can be difficult to extract from noisy data without running many thousands of trials, and in biophysical synapses, facilitation of per-vesicle release probability is confounded by depletion. To overcome this, we obtained traces of free Ca 2+ concentration in response to various action potential stimulus trains from a molecular MCell model of a hippocampal Schaffer collateral axon. Ca 2+ sensors were placed at varying distance from a voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) cluster, and Ca 2+ was buffered by calbindin. Then, using the calcium traces to drive deterministic state vector models of synaptotagmin 1 and 7 (Syt-1/7), which respectively mediate synchronous and asynchronous release in excitatory hippocampal synapses, we obtained high-resolution profiles of instantaneous release rate, to which we applied functional fits. Synchronous vesicle release occurred predominantly within half a micron of the source of spike-evoked Ca 2+ influx, while asynchronous release occurred more consistently at all distances. Both fast and slow mechanisms exhibited multi-exponential release rate curves, whose magnitudes decayed exponentially with distance from the Ca 2+ source. Profile parameters facilitate on different time scales according to a single, general facilitation function. These functional descriptions lay the groundwork for efficient mesoscale modelling of vesicular release dynamics.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 9, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 4, 2023
  6. Metal-fullerene compounds are characterized by significant electron transfer to the fullerene cage, giving rise to an electric dipole moment. We use the method of electrostatic beam deflection to verify whether such reactions take place within superfluid helium nanodroplets between an embedded C 60 molecule and either alkali (heliophobic) or rare-earth (heliophilic) atoms. The two cases lead to distinctly different outcomes: C 60 Na n ( n = 1–4) display no discernable dipole moment, while C 60 Yb is strongly polar. This suggests that the fullerene and small alkali clusters fail to form a charge-transfer bond in the helium matrix despitemore »their strong van der Waals attraction. The C 60 Yb dipole moment, on the other hand, is in agreement with the value expected for an ionic complex.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 4, 2023
  7. Progress in computational neuroscience toward understanding brain function is challenged both by the complexity of molecular-scale electrochemical interactions at the level of individual neurons and synapses and the dimensionality of network dynamics across the brain covering a vast range of spatial and temporal scales. Our work abstracts an existing highly detailed, biophysically realistic 3D reaction-diffusion model of a chemical synapse to a compact internal state space representation that maps onto parallel neuromorphic hardware for efficient emulation at a very large scale and offers near-equivalence in input-output dynamics while preserving biologically interpretable tunable parameters.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 29, 2022
  8. Rice, J. (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 30, 2022
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022