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  1. Abstract

    Community-based public health interventions often rely on representative, spatially referenced outcome data to draw conclusions about a finite population. To estimate finite-population parameters, we are posed with two challenges: to correctly account for spatial association among the sampled and nonsampled participants and to correctly model missingness in key covariates, which may be also spatially associated. To accomplish this, we take inspiration from the preferential sampling literature and develop a general Bayesian framework that can specifically account for preferential non-response. This framework is first applied to three missing data scenarios in a simulation study. It is then used to account for missing data patterns seen in reported annual household income in a corner-store intervention project. Through this, we are able to construct finite-population estimates of the percent of income spent on fruits and vegetables. Such a framework provides a flexible way to account for spatial association and complex missing data structures in finite populations.

  2. Abstract

    One of the most fundamental baryonic matter components of galaxies is the neutral atomic hydrogen (Hi). At low redshifts, this component can be traced directly through the 21 cm transition, but to infer the Higas content of the most distant galaxies, a viable tracer is needed. We here investigate the fidelity of the fine-structure transition of the (2P3/22P1/3) transition of singly ionized carbon Ciiat 158μm as a proxy for Hiin a set simulated galaxies atz≈ 6, following the work by Heintz et al. We select 11,125 star-forming galaxies from thesimbasimulations, with far-infrared line emissions postprocessed and modeled within the Sigameframework. We find a strong connection between Ciiand Hi, with the relation between this Cii-to-Hirelation (β[CII]) being anticorrelated with the gas-phase metallicity of the simulated galaxies. We further use these simulations to make predictions for the total baryonic matter content of galaxies atz≈ 6, and specifically the Higas mass fraction. We find mean values ofMH I/M= 1.4 andMH I/Mbar,tot= 0.45. These results provide strong evidence for Hibeing the dominant baryonic matter component by mass in galaxies atz≈ 6.

  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 17, 2023
  4. Changes in the geometry and topology of self-assembled membranes underlie diverse processes across cellular biology and engineering. Similar to lipid bilayers, monolayer colloidal membranes have in-plane fluid-like dynamics and out-of-plane bending elasticity. Their open edges and micrometer-length scale provide a tractable system to study the equilibrium energetics and dynamic pathways of membrane assembly and reconfiguration. Here, we find that doping colloidal membranes with short miscible rods transforms disk-shaped membranes into saddle-shaped surfaces with complex edge structures. The saddle-shaped membranes are well approximated by Enneper’s minimal surfaces. Theoretical modeling demonstrates that their formation is driven by increasing the positive Gaussian modulus, which in turn, is controlled by the fraction of short rods. Further coalescence of saddle-shaped surfaces leads to diverse topologically distinct structures, including shapes similar to catenoids, trinoids, four-noids, and higher-order structures. At long timescales, we observe the formation of a system-spanning, sponge-like phase. The unique features of colloidal membranes reveal the topological transformations that accompany coalescence pathways in real time. We enhance the functionality of these membranes by making their shape responsive to external stimuli. Our results demonstrate a pathway toward control of thin elastic sheets’ shape and topology—a pathway driven by the emergent elasticity induced by compositional heterogeneity.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 9, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  6. Interactions of N2 at oxide surfaces are important for understanding electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction mechanisms. Interactions of N2 at the polycrystalline vanadium oxide/vapor interface were monitored at room temperature and total pressures up to 10^-1 Torr using Near-Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (NAP-XPS). The oxide film was predominantly V(IV), with V(III) and V(V) components. XPS spectra were acquired in environments of both pure N2 and equal pressures of N2 and H2O vapor. In pure N2, broad, partially resolved N1s features were observed at 401.0 eV and 398.7 eV binding energy, with relative intensities of ~ 3:1, respectively. These features remained upon subsequent pump down to 10^-9 Torr. Observed maximum N surface coverage was ~ 1.5 x 10^13 cm^-2 -a fraction of a monolayer. In the presence of equal pressures of H2O, the adsorbed N intensity at 10^-1 Torr is ~ 25% of that observed in the absence of H2O. The formation of molecularly adsorbed H2O was also observed. Density functional theory-based calculations suggest favorable absorption energies for N2 bonding to both V(IV) and V(III) cation sites, but less so for V(V) sites. Hartree-Fock-based cluster calculations for N2 -V end-on adsorption show that experimental XPS doublet features are consistent with calculatedmore »shake-up and normal, final ionic configurations, for N2 end-on bonding to V(III) sites, but not V(IV) sites. XPS spectra of vanadium oxide transferred in situ between electrochemical and UHV environments indicate that the oxide surfaces studied here are stable upon exposure to electrolyte under NRR-relevant conditions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  7. Abstract: Here we provide examples that demonstrate the value of using properly designed and easily performed doping experiments to give insights about the nature of the analyte(s) present in a 1H NMR sample. Two mixtures, the first quite complex and the second far less so, have been chosen: (i) the crude pyrolysate from reaction of butyric acid in (supercritical) water at 600 °C and (ii) a mixture of two basic amines. In the former, 13 distinct carbonyl-containing compounds, ranging in relative concentration of nearly 2 orders of magnitude, were positively identified. The latter highlights the advantage of using a doping experiment as opposed to merely comparing the spectra from two separate samples containing the same analyte.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  8. The western subtropical South Pacific (WSSP) has recently been found to support high rates of di-nitrogen (N2) fixation in association with shallow hydrothermal iron fluxes. While previous 15N2 uptake and short-term d15N budgets have found that high rates of N2 fixation contribute significantly to export production, no longer-term evaluations of N2 fixation’s role in supporting the regional ecosystem were available. Here we present results of an annual d15N budget using the d15N of sinking particles captured in a moored sediment trap deployed at 1000 m from Nov 2019 - Nov 2020. We compare the d15N of the particles collected over this annual cycle with the d15N of subsurface nitrate to evaluate the seasonal and annual importance of N2 fixation for supporting export production. The results indicate that N2 fixation supported up to ~20% of annual export and that N2 fixation was most important during the summer. Notably, the d15N of subsurface nitrate at the trap station was low, 2 to 3 per mil compared to stations further from the vents. We also present some of the region’s first dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) d15N data. The DON samples collected in Nov 2019 and Nov 2020 show similar DON concentrations and d15Nmore »between years. However, while DON concentrations in the WSSP, 5 +/- 1 uM, were similar to the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP), the d15N of DON in the upper 100 m in the WSSP was between 2 to 4 per mil, which is lower than the ETSP, where DON d15N was between 4 to 6 per mil. Together, the results of the annual d15N budget as well as the low-d15N DON provide a longer-term perspective on the significance of N2 fixation in the WSSP. Additionally, the results suggest that N2 fixation in the WSSP introduces significant low-d15N N to the ocean, offsetting the elevated d15N generated in the oxygen deficient zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023

    Contrary to many stereotypes about massive galaxies, observed brightest group galaxies (BGGs) are diverse in their star formation rates, kinematic properties, and morphologies. Studying how they evolve into and express such diverse characteristics is an important piece of the galaxy formation puzzle. We use a high-resolution cosmological suite of simulations Romulus and compare simulated central galaxies in group-scale haloes at z = 0 to observed BGGs. The comparison encompasses the stellar mass–halo mass relation, various kinematic properties and scaling relations, morphologies, and the star formation rates. Generally, we find that Romulus reproduces the full spectrum of diversity in the properties of the BGGs very well, albeit with a tendency toward lower than the observed fraction of quenched BGGs. We find both early-type S0 and elliptical galaxies as well as late-type disc galaxies; we find Romulus galaxies that are fast-rotators as well as slow-rotators; and we observe galaxies transforming from late-type to early-type following strong dynamical interactions with satellites. We also carry out case studies of selected Romulus galaxies to explore the link between their properties, and the recent evolution of the stellar system as well as the surrounding intragroup/circumgalactic medium. In general, mergers/strong interactions quench star-forming activity and disrupt themore »stellar disc structure. Sometimes, however, such interactions can also trigger star formation and galaxy rejuvenation. Black hole feedback can also lead to a decline of the star formation rate but by itself, it does not typically lead to complete quenching of the star formation activity in the BGGs.

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  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023