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  1. Abstract 316L stainless steel (316L SS) is a flagship material for structural applications in corrosive environments, having been extensively studied for decades for its favorable balance between mechanical and corrosion properties. More recently, 316L SS has also proven to have excellent printability when parts are produced with additive manufacturing techniques, notably laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). Because of the harsh thermo-mechanical cycles experienced during rapid solidification and cooling, LPBF processing tends to generate unique microstructures. Strong heterogeneities can be found inside grains, including trapped elements, nano-inclusions, and a high density of dislocations that form the so-called cellular structure. Interestingly, LPBFmore »316L SS not only exhibits better mechanical properties than its conventionally processed counterpart, but it also usually offers much higher resistance to pitting in chloride solutions. Unfortunately, the complexity of the LPBF microstructures, in addition to process-induced defects, such as porosity and surface roughness, have slowed progress toward linking specific microstructural features to corrosion susceptibility and complicated the development of calibrated simulations of pitting phenomena. The first part of this article is dedicated to an in-depth review of the microstructures found in LPBF 316L SS and their potential effects on the corrosion properties, with an emphasis on pitting resistance. The second part offers a perspective of some relevant modeling techniques available to simulate the corrosion of LPBF 316L SS, including current challenges that should be overcome.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Photoredox catalysis has proven to be a powerful tool in synthetic organic chemistry. The rational design of photosensitizers with improved photocatalytic performance constitutes a major advancement in photoredox organic transformations. This review summarizes the fundamental ground-state and excited-state photophysical and electrochemical attributes of molecular photosensitizers, which are important determinants of their photocatalytic reactivity.
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  6. In this Perspective, we highlight many examples of photoluminescent metal complexes supported by isocyanides, with an emphasis on recent developments including several from our own group. Work in this field has shown that the isocyanide can play important structural roles, both as a terminal ligand and as a bridging ligand for polynuclear structures, and can influence the excited-state character and excited-state dynamics. In addition, there are many examples of isocyanide-supported complexes where the isocyanide serves as a chromophoric ligand, meaning the low-energy excited states that are important in the photochemistry are partially or completely localized on the isocyanide. Finally, anmore »emerging trend in the design of luminescent compounds is to use the isocyanide as an electrophilic precursor, converted to an acyclic carbene by nucleophilic addition which imparts certain photophysical advantages. This Perspective aims to show the diverse roles played by isocyanides in the design of luminescent compounds, showcasing the recent developments that have led to a substantial growth in fundamental knowledge, function, and applications related to photoluminescence.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 14, 2022
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  9. Abstract The high-pressure phases of oxyhydroxides (δ-AlOOH, ε-FeOOH, and their solid solution), candidate components of subducted slabs, have wide stability fields, thus potentially influencing volatile circulation and dynamics in the Earth’s lower mantle. Here, we report the elastic wave velocities of δ-(Al,Fe)OOH (Fe/(Al + Fe) = 0.13, δ-Fe13) to 79 GPa, determined by nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. At pressures below 20 GPa, a softening of the phonon spectra is observed. With increasing pressure up to the Fe 3+ spin crossover (~ 45 GPa), the Debye sound velocity ( v D ) increases. At higher pressures, the low spin δ-Fe13 is characterized by a pressure-invariantmore »v D . Using the equation of state for the same sample, the shear-, compressional-, and bulk-velocities ( v S , v P , and v Φ ) are calculated and extrapolated to deep mantle conditions. The obtained velocity data show that δ-(Al,Fe)OOH may cause low- v Φ and low- v P anomalies in the shallow lower mantle. At deeper depths, we find that this hydrous phase reproduces the anti-correlation between v S and v Φ reported for the large low seismic velocity provinces, thus serving as a potential seismic signature of hydrous circulation in the lower mantle.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  10. Abstract Background

    Quantification of individual species in microbial co-cultures and consortia is critical to understanding and designing communities with prescribed functions. However, it is difficult to physically separate species or measure species-specific attributes in most multi-species systems. Anaerobic gut fungi (AGF) (Neocallimastigomycetes) are native to the rumen of large herbivores, where they exist as minority members among a wealth of prokaryotes. AGF have significant biotechnological potential owing to their diverse repertoire of potent lignocellulose-degrading carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), which indirectly bolsters activity of other rumen microbes through metabolic exchange. While decades of literature suggest that polysaccharide degradation and AGF growth are acceleratedmore »in co-culture with prokaryotes, particularly methanogens, methods have not been available to measure concentrations of individual species in co-culture. New methods to disentangle the contributions of AGF and rumen prokaryotes are sorely needed to calculate AGF growth rates and metabolic fluxes to prove this hypothesis and understand its causality for predictable co-culture design.

    Results

    We present a simple, microplate-based method to measure AGF and methanogen concentrations in co-culture based on fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopies. Using samples of < 2% of the co-culture volume, we demonstrate significant increases in AGF growth rate and xylan and glucose degradation rates in co-culture with methanogens relative to mono-culture. Further, we calculate significant differences in AGF metabolic fluxes in co-culture relative to mono-culture, namely increased flux through the energy-generating hydrogenosome organelle. While calculated fluxes highlight uncertainties in AGF primary metabolism that preclude definitive explanations for this shift, our method will enable steady-state fluxomic experiments to probe AGF metabolism in greater detail.

    Conclusions

    The method we present to measure AGF and methanogen concentrations enables direct growth measurements and calculation of metabolic fluxes in co-culture. These metrics are critical to develop a quantitative understanding of interwoven rumen metabolism, as well as the impact of co-culture on polysaccharide degradation and metabolite production. The framework presented here can inspire new methods to probe systems beyond AGF and methanogens. Simple modifications to the method will likely extend its utility to co-cultures with more than two organisms or those grown on solid substrates to facilitate the design and deployment of microbial communities for bioproduction and beyond.

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