skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Thompson, Diane M."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Obtaining dispersal estimates for a species is key to understanding local adaptation and population dynamics and to implementing conservation actions. Genetic isolation-by-distance (IBD) patterns can be used for estimating dispersal, and these patterns are especially useful for marine species in which few other methods are available. In this study, we genotyped coral reef fish (Amphiprion biaculeatus) at 16 microsatellite loci across eight sites across 210 km in the central Philippines to generate fine-scale estimates of dispersal. All sites except for one followed IBD patterns. Using IBD theory, we estimated a larval dispersal kernel spread of 8.9 km (95% confidence interval of 2.3–18.4 km). Genetic distance to the remaining site correlated strongly with the inverse probability of larval dispersal from an oceanographic model. Ocean currents were a better explanation for genetic distance at large spatial extents (sites greater than 150 km apart), while geographic distance remained the best explanation for spatial extents less than 150 km. Our study demonstrates the utility of combining IBD patterns with oceanographic simulations to understand connectivity in marine environments and to guide marine conservation strategies. 
    more » « less
  2. Oceanic islands support unique biotas but often lack ecological redundancy, so that the removal of a species can have a large effect on the ecosystem. The larger islands of the Galápagos Archipelago once had one or two species of giant tortoise that were the dominant herbivore. Using paleoecological techniques, we investigate the ecological cascade on highland ecosystems that resulted from whalers removing many thousands of tortoises from the lowlands. We hypothesize that the seasonal migration of a now-extinct tortoise species to the highlands was curtailed by decreased intraspecific competition. We find the trajectory of plant community dynamics changed within a decade of the first whaling vessels visiting the islands. Novel communities established, with a previously uncommon shrub, Miconia , replacing other shrubs of the genera Alternanthera and Acalypha . It was, however, the introduction of cattle and horses that caused the local extirpation of plant species, with the most extreme impacts being evident after c. 1930. This modified ecology is considered the natural state of the islands and has shaped subsequent conservation policy and practice. Restoration of El Junco Crater should emphasize exclusion of livestock, rewilding with tortoises, and expanding the ongoing plantings of Miconia to also include Acalypha and Alternanthera . 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Abstract

    Coral Sr/Ca records have been widely used to reconstruct and understand past sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the tropical Pacific. However, in the eastern equatorial Pacific, coral growth conditions are marginal, and strong El Niño events have led to high mortality, limiting opportunities for coral Sr/Ca‐based SST reconstructions. In this study, we present two ∼25‐year Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca records measured on modernPorites lobatafrom Wolf and Darwin Islands in the northern Galápagos. In these records, we confirm the well‐established relationship between Sr/Ca and SST and investigate the impact of heat stress on this relationship. We demonstrate a weakened relationship between Sr/Ca and SST after a major (Degree Heating Months 9°C‐months) heat stress event during the 1997–1998 El Niño, with a larger response in the Wolf core. However, removing data that covers the 1997–1998 El Niño from calibration does not improve reconstruction statistics. Nevertheless, we find that excluding dataafterthe 1997–1998 El Niño event from the calibration reduces the SST reconstruction error slightly. These results confirm that coral Sr/Ca is a reliable SST proxy in this region, although it can respond adversely to unusual heat stress. We suggest that noise in Sr/Ca‐SST calibrations may be reduced by removing data immediately following large heat extremes.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Global surface temperatures during the twentieth century are characterized by multidecadal periods of accelerated or reduced warming, which are thought to be driven by Pacific decadal variability, specifically changes in trade‐wind strength. However, the relationship between trade‐wind strength and global surface warming remains poorly constrained due to the scarcity of instrumental wind observations. Previous work has shown that corals growing at Tarawa Atoll (1.3°N, 173°E) incorporate dissolved Mn flushed from lagoon sediments by El Niño‐related westerly wind events (WWEs), providing records of both westerly wind variability and trade‐wind strength (on decadal time scales). Here, we explore the utility of this novel coral Mn/Ca‐wind proxy at two nearby islands that also feature west‐facing lagoons. Short coral Mn/Ca records from Butaritari (3°N, 173°E) and Kiritimati (2°N, 157.5°W) track WWEs, albeit with some intercolony variability in the magnitude and timing of the signal. Variability in coral Mn/Ca signal intensity among records from Butaritari suggests that wind‐driven mixing of the sediment Mn reservoir may be finite and/or localized. At Kiritimati, a coral growing outside the lagoon shows higher Mn/Ca concentrations during the 1997/1998 El Niño event, suggesting that nearshore sediments may be an overlooked dissolved Mn reservoir. Taken together, these results highlight a need for additional studies of Mn reservoir variability within and across atolls that hold promise for recording WWEs. These results also suggest that Mn/Ca records from multiple coral colonies and sites are needed to generate robust coral‐based wind reconstructions, particularly from sites with unknown or complex Mn transport pathways.

    more » « less
  6. null (Ed.)
    Abstract. Reconstructions of global hydroclimate during the Common Era (CE; the past ∼2000 years) are important for providing context for current and future global environmental change. Stable isotope ratios in water are quantitative indicators of hydroclimate on regional to global scales, and these signals are encoded in a wide range of natural geologic archives. Here we present the Iso2k database, a global compilation of previously published datasets from a variety of natural archives that record the stable oxygen (δ18O) or hydrogen (δ2H) isotopic compositions of environmental waters, which reflect hydroclimate changes over the CE. The Iso2k database contains 759 isotope records from the terrestrial and marine realms, including glacier and ground ice (210); speleothems (68); corals, sclerosponges, and mollusks (143); wood (81); lake sediments and other terrestrial sediments (e.g., loess) (158); and marine sediments (99). Individual datasets have temporal resolutions ranging from sub-annual to centennial and include chronological data where available. A fundamental feature of the database is its comprehensive metadata, which will assist both experts and nonexperts in the interpretation of each record and in data synthesis. Key metadata fields have standardized vocabularies to facilitate comparisons across diversearchives and with climate-model-simulated fields. This is the firstglobal-scale collection of water isotope proxy records from multiple typesof geological and biological archives. It is suitable for evaluatinghydroclimate processes through time and space using large-scale synthesis,model–data intercomparison and (paleo)data assimilation. The Iso2k databaseis available for download at (Konecky and McKay, 2020) and is also accessible via the NOAA/WDS Paleo Datalanding page: (last access: 30 July 2020). 
    more » « less