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    Deep radio surveys of extragalactic legacy fields trace a large range of spatial and brightness temperature sensitivity scales, and therefore have differing biases to radio-emitting physical components within galaxies. This is particularly true of radio surveys performed at $\lesssim 1 \ \mathrm{arcsec}$ angular resolutions, and so robust comparisons are necessary to better understand the biases present in each survey. We present a multiresolution and multiwavelength analysis of the sources detected in a new Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) survey of the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North field. For the 24 VLBA-selected sources described in Paper I, we augment the VLBA data with EVN data, and ∼0.1–1 arcsec angular resolution data provided by Very Large Array (VLA) and enhanced-Multi Element Remotely Linked Interferometry Network. This sample includes new active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in this field, thanks to a new source extraction technique that adopts priors from ancillary multiwavelength data. The high brightness temperatures of these sources (TB ≳ 106 K) confirm AGN cores, that would often be missed or ambiguous in lower-resolution radio data of the same sources. Furthermore, only 15 sources are identified as ‘radiative’ AGN based on available X-ray and infrared constraints. By combining VLA and VLBA measurements, we find evidence that the majority of the extended radio emission is also AGN dominated, with only three sources with evidence for extended potentially star formation-dominated radio emission. We demonstrate the importance of wide-field multiresolution (arcsecond–milliarcsecond) coverage of the faint radio source population, for a complete picture of the multiscale processes within these galaxies.

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    This paper presents the results of 475h of interferometric observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array towards the Spiderweb protocluster at z=2.16. We search for large, extended molecular gas reservoirs among 46 previously detected CO(1−0) emitters, employing a customised method we developed. Based on the CO emission images and position–velocity diagrams, as well as the ranking of sources using a binary weighting of six different criteria, we have identified 14 robust and 7 tentative candidates that exhibit large extended molecular gas reservoirs. These extended reservoirs are defined as having sizes greater than 40 kpc or supergalactic scale. This result suggests a high frequency of extended gas reservoirs, comprising at least 30 percent of our CO-selected sample. An environmental study of the candidates is carried out based on Nth nearest neighbour and we find that the large molecular gas reservoirs tend to exist in denser regions. The spatial distribution of our candidates is mainly centred on the core region of the Spiderweb protocluster. The performance and adaptability of our method are discussed. We found 13 (potentially) extended gas reservoirs located in eight galaxy (proto)clusters from the literature. We noticed that large extended molecular gas reservoirs surrounding (normal) star-forming galaxies in protoclusters are rare. This may be attributable to the lack of observations low-J CO transitions and the lack of quantitative analyses of molecular gas morphologies. The large gas reservoirs in the Spiderweb protocluster are potential sources of the intracluster medium seen in low redshift Virgo- or Coma-like galaxy clusters.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We describe the first results on weak gravitational lensing from the SuperCLASS survey: the first survey specifically designed to measure the weak lensing effect in radio-wavelength data, both alone and in cross-correlation with optical data. We analyse $1.53 \, \mathrm{deg}^2$ of optical data from the Subaru telescope and $0.26 \, \mathrm{deg}^2$ of radio data from the e-MERLIN and VLA telescopes (the DR1 data set). Using standard methodologies on the optical data only we make a significant (10σ) detection of the weak lensing signal (a shear power spectrum) due to the massive supercluster of galaxies in the targeted region. For the radio data we develop a new method to measure the shapes of galaxies from the interferometric data, and we construct a simulation pipeline to validate this method. We then apply this analysis to our radio observations, treating the e-MERLIN and VLA data independently. We achieve source densities of $0.5 \,$ arcmin−2 in the VLA data and $0.06 \,$ arcmin−2 in the e-MERLIN data, numbers which prove too small to allow a detection of a weak lensing signal in either the radio data alone or in cross-correlation with the optical data. Finally, we show preliminary results from a visibility-plane combination of the data from e-MERLIN and VLA which will be used for the forthcoming full SuperCLASS data release. This approach to data combination is expected to enhance both the number density of weak lensing sources available, and the fidelity with which their shapes can be measured. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The SuperCLuster Assisted Shear Survey (SuperCLASS) is a legacy programme using the e-MERLIN interferometric array. The aim is to observe the sky at L-band (1.4 GHz) to a r.m.s. of $7\, \mu {\rm Jy}\,$beam−1 over an area of $\sim 1\, {\rm deg}^2$ centred on the Abell 981 supercluster. The main scientific objectives of the project are: (i) to detect the effects of weak lensing in the radio in preparation for similar measurements with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA); (ii) an extinction free census of star formation and AGN activity out to z ∼ 1. In this paper we give an overview of the project including the science goals and multiwavelength coverage before presenting the first data release. We have analysed around 400 h of e-MERLIN data allowing us to create a Data Release 1 (DR1) mosaic of $\sim 0.26\, {\rm deg}^2$ to the full depth. These observations have been supplemented with complementary radio observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and optical/near infrared observations taken with the Subaru, Canada-France-Hawaii, and Spitzer Telescopes. The main data product is a catalogue of 887 sources detected by the VLA, of which 395 are detected by e-MERLIN and 197 of these are resolved. We have investigated the size, flux, and spectral index properties of these sources finding them compatible with previous studies. Preliminary photometric redshifts, and an assessment of galaxy shapes measured in the radio data, combined with a radio-optical cross-correlation technique probing cosmic shear in a supercluster environment, are presented in companion papers. 
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