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  1. Morrell, P (Ed.)
    Abstract By modeling the homoeologous gene losses that occurred in 50 genomes deriving from ten distinct polyploidy events, we show that the evolutionary forces acting on polyploids are remarkably similar, regardless of whether they occur in flowering plants, ciliates, fishes, or yeasts. We show that many of the events show a relative rate of duplicate gene loss before the first postpolyploidy speciation that is significantly higher than in later phases of their evolution. The relatively weak selective constraint experienced by the single-copy genes these losses produced leads us to suggest that most of the purely selectively neutral duplicate gene losses occur in the immediate postpolyploid period. Nearly all of the events show strong evidence of biases in the duplicate losses, consistent with them being allopolyploidies, with 2 distinct progenitors contributing to the modern species. We also find ongoing and extensive reciprocal gene losses (alternative losses of duplicated ancestral genes) between these genomes. With the exception of a handful of closely related taxa, all of these polyploid organisms are separated from each other by tens to thousands of reciprocal gene losses. As a result, it is very unlikely that viable diploid hybrid species could form between these taxa, since matings betweenmore »such hybrids would tend to produce offspring lacking essential genes. It is, therefore, possible that the relatively high frequency of recurrent polyploidies in some lineages may be due to the ability of new polyploidies to bypass reciprocal gene loss barriers.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 22, 2023
  2. Ho, Simon (Ed.)
    Abstract Widely used approaches for extracting phylogenetic information from aligned sets of molecular sequences rely upon probabilistic models of nucleotide substitution or amino-acid replacement. The phylogenetic information that can be extracted depends on the number of columns in the sequence alignment and will be decreased when the alignment contains gaps due to insertion or deletion events. Motivated by the measurement of information loss, we suggest assessment of the effective sequence length (ESL) of an aligned data set. The ESL can differ from the actual number of columns in a sequence alignment because of the presence of alignment gaps. Furthermore, the estimation of phylogenetic information is affected by model misspecification. Inevitably, the actual process of molecular evolution differs from the probabilistic models employed to describe this process. This disparity means the amount of phylogenetic information in an actual sequence alignment will differ from the amount in a simulated data set of equal size, which motivated us to develop a new test for model adequacy. Via theory and empirical data analysis, we show how to disentangle the effects of gaps and model misspecification. By comparing the Fisher information of actual and simulated sequences, we identify which alignment sites and tree branches aremore »most affected by gaps and model misspecification. [Fisher information; gaps; insertion; deletion; indel; model adequacy; goodness-of-fit test; sequence alignment.]« less