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  1. Abstract

    In this paper we study a finite‐depth layer of viscous incompressible fluid in dimension , modeled by the Navier‐Stokes equations. The fluid is assumed to be bounded below by a flat rigid surface and above by a free, moving interface. A uniform gravitational field acts perpendicularly to the flat surface, and we consider the cases with and without surface tension acting on the free interface. In addition to these gravity‐capillary effects, we allow for a second force field in the bulk and an external stress tensor on the free interface, both of which are posited to be in traveling wave form, i.e., time‐independent when viewed in a coordinate system moving at a constant velocity parallel to the rigid lower boundary. We prove that, with surface tension in dimension and without surface tension in dimension , for every nontrivial traveling velocity there exists a nonempty open set of force and stress data that give rise to traveling wave solutions. While the existence of inviscid traveling waves is well‐known, to the best of our knowledge this is the first construction of viscous traveling wave solutions.

    Our proof involves a number of novel analytic ingredients, including: the study of an overdetermined Stokes problem and its underdetermined adjoint problem, a delicate asymptotic development of the symbol for a normal‐stress to normal‐Dirichlet map defined via the Stokes operator, a new scale of specialized anisotropic Sobolev spaces, and the study of a pseudodifferential operator that synthesizes the various operators acting on the free surface functions. © 2022 The Authors.Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematicspublished by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
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    The [Formula: see text]-pinch is a classical steady state for the MHD model, where a confined plasma fluid is separated by vacuum, in the presence of a magnetic field which is generated by a prescribed current along the [Formula: see text] direction. We develop a variational framework to study its stability in the absence of viscosity effect, and demonstrate for the first time that such a [Formula: see text]-pinch is always unstable. Moreover, we discover a sufficient condition such that the eigenvalues can be unbounded, which leads to ill-posedness of the linearized MHD system. 
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    The [Formula: see text]-pinch is a classical steady state for the MHD model, where a confined plasma fluid is separated by vacuum, in the presence of a magnetic field which is generated by a prescribed current along the [Formula: see text]-direction. We develop a scaled variational framework to study its stability in the presence of viscosity effect, and demonstrate that any such [Formula: see text]-pinch is always unstable. We also establish the existence of a largest growing mode, which dominates the linear growth of the linear MHD system. 
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