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  1. Understanding the processes that initiate volcanic eruptions after periods of quiescence are of paramount importance to interpreting volcano monitoring signals and mitigating volcanic hazards. However, studies of eruption initiation mechanisms are rarely systematically applied to high-risk volcanoes. Studies of erupted materials provide important insight into eruption initiation, as they provide direct insight into the physical and chemical changes that occur in magma reservoirs prior to eruptions, but are also often underutilized. Petrologic and geochemical studies can also constrain the timing of processes involved in eruption initiation, and the time that might be expected to elapse between remote detection of increased activity and eventual eruption. A compilation and analysis of literature data suggests that there are statistical differences in the composition, volume, style and timescales between eruptions initiated by different mechanisms. Knowledge of the processes that initiate eruptions at a given volcano may thus have significant predictive power. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 18, 2024
  2. Abstract The composition of clinopyroxene and clinopyroxene-liquid (Cpx-Liq) pairs are frequently used to calculate crystallization/equilibration pressures in igneous systems. While canonical uncertainties are often assigned to calculated pressures based on fits to calibration or test datasets, the sources of these uncertainties (and thus ways to reduce them) have not been rigorously assessed. We show that considerable uncertainties in calculated pressures arise from analytical error associated with Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) measurements of Cpx. Specifically, low X-ray counts during analysis of elements with concentrations <1 wt% resulting from insufficient count times and/or low beam currents yield highly imprecise measurements (1σ errors of 10–40% for Na2O). Low analytical precision propagates into the calculation of pressure-sensitive mineral components such as jadeite. Using Monte Carlo approaches, we demonstrate that elemental variation resulting from analytical precision alone generates pressures spanning ~4 kbar (~15 km) for a single Cpx and ~6 kbar for a single Cpx-Liq pair using popular barometry expressions. In addition, analytical uncertainties in mineral compositions produce highly correlated arrays between pressure and temperature that have been previously attributed to transcrustal magma storage. Before invoking such geological interpretations, a more mundane origin from analytical imprecision must be ruled out. Most importantly, low analytical precision does not just affect the application of barometers to natural systems; it has also affected characterization of Cpx in experimental products used to calibrate and test barometers. The impact of poor precision on each individual measurement is often magnified by the small number of measurements made within experimental charges, meaning that low analytical precision and true variability in mineral compositions have not been sufficiently mediated by averaging multiple EPMA analyses. We compile the number of Cpx measurements performed in N = 307 experiments used to calibrate existing barometers, and N = 490 new experiments, finding ~45% of experiment charges were characterized by ≤5 individual Cpx analyses. Insufficient characterization of the true composition of experimental phases likely accounts for the fact that all Cpx-based barometers exhibit large errors (± 3 kbar) when tested using global experimental datasets. We suggest specific changes to analytical and experimental protocols, such as increased count times and/or higher beam currents when measuring low concentration elements in relatively beam resistant Cpx in experiments and natural samples. We also advocate for increasing the number of analyses per experimental charge, resolving interlaboratory analytical offsets and improving data reporting. Implementing these changes is essential to produce a more robust dataset to calibrate and test the next generation of more precise and accurate Cpx-based barometers. In turn, this will enable more rigorous investigation of magma storage geometries in a variety of tectonic settings (e.g. distinguishing true transcrustal storage vs. storage in discrete reservoirs). 
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  5. Abstract Several geothermobarometric tools have focused on clinopyroxene due to its prevalence in igneous rocks, however clinopyroxene produced in high-silica igneous systems is high in iron and low in aluminum, causing existing geothermometers that depend on aluminum exchange to fail or yield overestimated temperatures. Here we present a new clinopyroxene-liquid geothermometer recommended for use in natural igneous systems with bulk SiO2 ≥ 70 wt%, which contain clinopyroxene with Mg# ≤ 65 and Al2O3 ≤ 7 wt%. (1) T ( ∘ C ) = 300 [ − 1.89 − 0.601 ( X CaTs Cpx ) − 0.186 ( X DiHd 2003 Cpx ) + 4.71 ( X SiO 2 liq ) + 77.6 ( X TiO 2 liq ) + 10.9 ( X FeO liq ) + 33.6 ( X MgO liq ) + 15.5 ( X CaO liq ) + 15.6 ( X KO 0.5 liq ) ] The new geothermometer lowers calculated temperatures by ~85 °C on average relative to Putirka (2008, Eq. 33) and reduces the uncertainty by a factor of two (standard error of estimate ±20 °C). When applied to natural systems, we find this new clinopyroxene-liquid geothermometer reconciles many inconsistencies between experimental phase equilibria and preexisting geothermometry results for silicic volcanism, including those from the Bishop Tuff and Yellowstone caldera-forming and post-caldera rhyolites. We also demonstrate that clinopyroxene is not restricted to near-liquidus temperatures in rhyolitic systems; clinopyroxene can be stable over a broad temperature range, often down to the solidus. An Excel spreadsheet and Python notebook for calculating temperature with this new geothermometer may be downloaded from GitHub at http://bit.ly/cpxrhyotherm. 
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