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  1. Surface cleaning using commercial disinfectants, which has recently increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, can generate secondary indoor pollutants both in gas and aerosol phases. It can also affect indoor air quality and health, especially for workers repeatedly exposed to disinfectants. Here, we cleaned the floor of a mechanically ventilated office room using a commercial cleaner while concurrently measuring gas-phase precursors, oxidants, radicals, secondary oxidation products, and aerosols in real time; these were detected within minutes after cleaner application. During cleaning, indoor monoterpene concentrations exceeded outdoor concentrations by two orders of magnitude, increasing the rate of ozonolysis under lowmore »(<10 ppb) ozone levels. High number concentrations of freshly nucleated sub–10-nm particles (≥105 cm−3) resulted in respiratory tract deposited dose rates comparable to or exceeding that of inhalation of vehicle-associated aerosols.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Shape-memory actuators allow machines ranging from robots to medical implants to hold their form without continuous power, a feature especially advantageous for situations where these devices are untethered and power is limited. Although previous work has demonstrated shape-memory actuators using polymers, alloys, and ceramics, the need for micrometer-scale electro–shape-memory actuators remains largely unmet, especially ones that can be driven by standard electronics (~1 volt). Here, we report on a new class of fast, high-curvature, low-voltage, reconfigurable, micrometer-scale shape-memory actuators. They function by the electrochemical oxidation/reduction of a platinum surface, creating a strain in the oxidized layer that causes bending. Theymore »bend to the smallest radius of curvature of any electrically controlled microactuator (~500 nanometers), are fast (<100-millisecond operation), and operate inside the electrochemical window of water, avoiding bubble generation associated with oxygen evolution. We demonstrate that these shape-memory actuators can be used to create basic electrically reconfigurable microscale robot elements including actuating surfaces, origami-based three-dimensional shapes, morphing metamaterials, and mechanical memory elements. Our shape-memory actuators have the potential to enable the realization of adaptive microscale structures, bio-implantable devices, and microscopic robots.

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