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  1. In graph machine learning, data collection, sharing, and analysis often involve multiple parties, each of which may require varying levels of data security and privacy. To this end, preserving privacy is of great importance in protecting sensitive information. In the era of big data, the relationships among data entities have become unprecedentedly complex, and more applications utilize advanced data structures (i.e., graphs) that can support network structures and relevant attribute information. To date, many graph-based AI models have been proposed (e.g., graph neural networks) for various domain tasks, like computer vision and natural language processing. In this paper, we focus on reviewing privacypreserving techniques of graph machine learning. We systematically review related works from the data to the computational aspects. We rst review methods for generating privacy-preserving graph data. Then we describe methods for transmitting privacy-preserved information (e.g., graph model parameters) to realize the optimization-based computation when data sharing among multiple parties is risky or impossible. In addition to discussing relevant theoretical methodology and software tools, we also discuss current challenges and highlight several possible future research opportunities for privacy-preserving graph machine learning. Finally, we envision a uni ed and comprehensive secure graph machine learning system.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 22, 2024
  2. Network alignment is a critical steppingstone behind a variety of multi-network mining tasks. Most of the existing methods essentially optimize a Frobenius-like distance or ranking-based loss, ignoring the underlying geometry of graph data. Optimal transport (OT), together with Wasserstein distance, has emerged to be a powerful approach accounting for the underlying geometry explicitly. Promising as it might be, the state-of-the-art OT-based alignment methods suffer from two fundamental limitations, including (1) effectiveness due to the insufficient use of topology and consistency information and (2) scalability due to the non-convex formulation and repeated computationally costly loss calculation. In this paper, we propose a position-aware regularized optimal transport framework for network alignment named PARROT. To tackle the effectiveness issue, the proposed PARROT captures topology information by random walk with restart, with three carefully designed consistency regularization terms. To tackle the scalability issue, the regularized OT problem is decomposed into a series of convex subproblems and can be efficiently solved by the proposed constrained proximal point method with guaranteed convergence. Extensive experiments show that our algorithm achieves significant improvements in both effectiveness and scalability, outperforming the state-of-the-art network alignment methods and speeding up existing OT-based methods by up to 100 times.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 11, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 11, 2024
  5. Knowledge graph question answering aims to identify answers of the query according to the facts in the knowledge graph. In the vast majority of the existing works, the input queries are considered perfect and can precisely express the user’s query intention. However, in reality, input queries might be ambiguous and elusive which only contain a limited amount of information. Directly answering these ambiguous queries may yield unwanted answers and deteriorate user experience. In this paper, we propose PReFNet which focuses on answering ambiguous queries with pseudo relevance feedback on knowledge graphs. In order to leverage the hidden (pseudo) relevance information existed in the results that are initially returned from a given query, PReFNet treats the top-k returned candidate answers as a set of most relevant answers, and uses variational Bayesian inference to infer user’s query intention. To boost the quality of the inferred queries, a neighborhood embedding based VGAE model is used to prune inferior inferred queries. The inferred high quality queries will be returned to the users to help them search with ease. Moreover, all the high-quality candidate nodes will be re-ranked according to the inferred queries. The experiment results show that our proposed method can recommend high-quality querymore »graphs to users and improve the question answering accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 11, 2024
  7. The political stance prediction for news articles has been widely studied to mitigate the echo chamber effect – people fall into their thoughts and reinforce their pre-existing beliefs. The previous works for the political stance problem focus on (1) identifying political factors that could reflect the political stance of a news article and (2) capturing those factors effectively. Despite their empirical successes, they are not sufficiently justified in terms of how effective their identified factors are in the political stance prediction. Motivated by this, in this work, we conduct a user study to investigate important factors in political stance prediction, and observe that the context and tone of a news article (implicit) and external knowledge for real-world entities appearing in the article (explicit) are important in determining its political stance. Based on this observation, we propose a novel knowledge-aware approach to political stance prediction (KHAN), employing (1) hierarchical attention networks (HAN) to learn the relationships among words and sentences in three different levels and (2) knowledge encoding (KE) to incorporate external knowledge for real-world entities into the process of political stance prediction. Also, to take into account the subtle and important difference between opposite political stances, we build two independentmore »political knowledge graphs (KG) (i.e., KG-lib and KG-con) by ourselves and learn to fuse the different political knowledge. Through extensive evaluations on three real-world datasets, we demonstrate the superiority of KHAN in terms of (1) accuracy, (2) efficiency, and (3) effectiveness.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2024
  8. Knowledge graph is ubiquitous and plays an important role in many real-world applications, including recommender systems, question answering, fact-checking, and so on. However, most of the knowledge graphs are incomplete which can hamper their practical usage. Fortunately, knowledge graph completion (KGC) can mitigate this problem by inferring missing edges in the knowledge graph according to the existing information. In this paper, we propose a novel KGC method named ABM (Attention-Based Message passing) which focuses on predicting the relation between any two entities in a knowledge graph. The proposed ABM consists of three integral parts, including (1) context embedding, (2) structure embedding, and (3) path embedding. In the context embedding, the proposed ABM generalizes the existing message passing neural network to update the node embedding and the edge embedding to assimilate the knowledge of nodes' neighbors, which captures the relative role information of the edge that we want to predict. In the structure embedding, the proposed method overcomes the shortcomings of the existing GNN method (i.e., most methods ignore the structural similarity between nodes.) by assigning different attention weights to different nodes while doing the aggregation. Path embedding generates paths between any two entities and treats these paths as sequences. Then,more »the sequence can be used as the input of the Transformer to update the embedding of the knowledge graph to gather the global role of the missing edges. By utilizing these three mutually complementary strategies, the proposed ABM is able to capture both the local and global information which in turn leads to a superb performance. Experiment results show that ABM outperforms baseline methods on a wide range of datasets.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 17, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 17, 2023
  10. Knowledge graph has been widely used in fact checking, owing to its capability to provide crucial background knowledge to help verify claims. Traditional fact checking works mainly focus on analyzing a single claim but have largely ignored analysis on the semantic consistency of pair-wise claims, despite its key importance in the real-world applications, e.g., multimodal fake news detection. This paper proposes a graph neural network based model INSPECTOR for pair-wise fact checking. Given a pair of claims, INSPECTOR aims to detect the potential semantic inconsistency of the input claims. The main idea of INSPECTOR is to use a graph attention neural network to learn a graph embedding for each claim in the pair, then use a tensor neural network to classify this pair of claims as consistent vs. inconsistent. The experiment results show that our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods, with a higher accuracy and a lower variance.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 17, 2023