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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Photoacoustic laser streaming provides a versatile technique to manipulate liquids and their suspended objects with light. However, only gold was used in the initial demonstrations. In this work, we first demonstrate that laser streaming can be achieved with common non-plasmonic metals such as Fe and W by their ion implantations in transparent substrates. We then investigate the effects of ion dose, substrate material and thickness on the strength and duration of streaming. Finally, we vary laser pulse width, repetition rate and power to understand the observed threshold power for laser streaming. It is found that substrate thickness has a negligible effect on laser streaming down to 0.1 mm, glass and quartz produce much stronger streaming than sapphire because of their smaller thermal conductivity, while quartz exhibits the longest durability than glass and sapphire under the same laser intensity. Compared with Au, Fe and W with higher melting points show a longer lifetime although they require a higher laser intensity to achieve a similar speed of streaming. To generate a continuous laser streaming, the laser must have a minimum pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and meet the minimum pulse width and energy to generate a transient vapor layer. This vapormore »layer enhances the generation of ultrasound waves, which are required for observable fluid jets. Principles of laser streaming and temperature simulation are used to explain these observations, and our study paves the way for further materials engineering and device design for strong and durable laser streaming.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  5. We perform numerical experiments of damped quasi-dynamic fault slip that include a rate-and-state behavior at steady state to simulate earthquakes and a plastic rheology to model permanent strain. The model shear zone has a finite width which represents a natural fault zone. Here we reproduce fast and slow events that follow theoretical and observational scaling relationships for earthquakes and slow slip events (SSEs). We show that the transition between fast and slow slip occurs when the friction drop in the shear zone is equal to a critical value, Δμc. With lower friction drops, SSEs use nearly all of mechanical work to accumulate inelastic strain, while with higher friction drops fast slips use some of the mechanical work to slip frictionally. Our new formulation replaces the state evolution of rate and state by the stress evolution concurrent with accumulation of permanent damage in and around a fault zone.
  6. Abstract Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong force, describes interactions of coloured quarks and gluons and the formation of hadronic matter. Conventional hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and quark-antiquark pairs, respectively. Particles with an alternative quark content are known as exotic states. Here a study is reported of an exotic narrow state in the D 0 D 0 π + mass spectrum just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold produced in proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The state is consistent with the ground isoscalar $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + tetraquark with a quark content of $${{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{u}}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{d}}}}}}}$$ c c u ¯ d ¯ and spin-parity quantum numbers J P  = 1 + . Study of the DD mass spectra disfavours interpretation of the resonance as the isovector state. The decay structure via intermediate off-shell D *+ mesons is consistent with the observed D 0 π + mass distribution. To analyse the mass of the resonance and its coupling to the D * D system, a dedicated model is developed under the assumption of an isoscalar axial-vector $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state decaying to the Dmore »* D channel. Using this model, resonance parameters including the pole position, scattering length, effective range and compositeness are determined to reveal important information about the nature of the $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state. In addition, an unexpected dependence of the production rate on track multiplicity is observed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023