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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 7, 2023
  2. Abstract In particle collider experiments, elementary particle interactions with large momentum transfer produce quarks and gluons (known as partons) whose evolution is governed by the strong force, as described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) 1 . These partons subsequently emit further partons in a process that can be described as a parton shower 2 , which culminates in the formation of detectable hadrons. Studying the pattern of the parton shower is one of the key experimental tools for testing QCD. This pattern is expected to depend on the mass of the initiating parton, through a phenomenon known asmore »the dead-cone effect, which predicts a suppression of the gluon spectrum emitted by a heavy quark of mass m Q and energy E , within a cone of angular size m Q / E around the emitter 3 . Previously, a direct observation of the dead-cone effect in QCD had not been possible, owing to the challenge of reconstructing the cascading quarks and gluons from the experimentally accessible hadrons. We report the direct observation of the QCD dead cone by using new iterative declustering techniques 4,5 to reconstruct the parton shower of charm quarks. This result confirms a fundamental feature of QCD. Furthermore, the measurement of a dead-cone angle constitutes a direct experimental observation of the non-zero mass of the charm quark, which is a fundamental constant in the standard model of particle physics.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 19, 2023
  3. Abstract The production of $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± , $$\mathrm{K}^{\pm }$$ K ± , $$\mathrm{K}^{0}_{S}$$ K S 0 , $$\mathrm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$ K ∗ ( 892 ) 0 , $$\mathrm{p}$$ p , $$\phi (1020)$$ ϕ ( 1020 ) , $$\Lambda $$ Λ , $$\Xi ^{-}$$ Ξ - , $$\Omega ^{-}$$ Ω - , and their antiparticles was measured in inelastic proton–proton (pp) collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 13 TeV at midrapidity ( $$|y|<0.5$$ | y | < 0.5 ) as a function of transverse momentum ( $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T ) using the ALICE detector at the CERNmore »LHC. Furthermore, the single-particle $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T distributions of $$\mathrm{K}^{0}_{S}$$ K S 0 , $$\Lambda $$ Λ , and $$\overline{\Lambda }$$ Λ ¯ in inelastic pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 7$$ s = 7  TeV are reported here for the first time. The $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T distributions are studied at midrapidity within the transverse momentum range $$0\le p_{\mathrm{T}}\le 20$$ 0 ≤ p T ≤ 20 GeV/ c , depending on the particle species. The $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T spectra, integrated yields, and particle yield ratios are discussed as a function of collision energy and compared with measurements at lower $$\sqrt{s}$$ s and with results from various general-purpose QCD-inspired Monte Carlo models. A hardening of the spectra at high $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T with increasing collision energy is observed, which is similar for all particle species under study. The transverse mass and $$x_{\mathrm{T}}\equiv 2p_{\mathrm{T}}/\sqrt{s}$$ x T ≡ 2 p T / s scaling properties of hadron production are also studied. As the collision energy increases from $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 7–13 TeV, the yields of non- and single-strange hadrons normalized to the pion yields remain approximately constant as a function of $$\sqrt{s}$$ s , while ratios for multi-strange hadrons indicate enhancements. The $$p_\mathrm{{T}}$$ p T -differential cross sections of $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± , $$\mathrm {K}^{\pm }$$ K ± and $$\mathrm {p}$$ p ( $$\overline{\mathrm{p}}$$ p ¯ ) are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations, which are found to overestimate the cross sections for $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± and $$\mathrm{p}$$ p ( $$\overline{\mathrm{p}}$$ p ¯ ) at high $$p_\mathrm{{T}}$$ p T .« less
  4. Abstract The measurement of the azimuthal-correlation function of prompt D mesons with charged particles in pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} =5.02\ \hbox {TeV}$$ s = 5.02 TeV and p–Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02\ \hbox {TeV}$$ s NN = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC is reported. The $$\mathrm{D}^{0}$$ D 0 , $$\mathrm{D}^{+} $$ D + , and $$\mathrm{D}^{*+} $$ D ∗ + mesons, together with their charge conjugates, were reconstructed at midrapidity in the transverse momentum interval $$3< p_\mathrm{T} < 24\ \hbox {GeV}/c$$ 3 < p T < 24 GeV / c and correlated with charged particlesmore »having $$p_\mathrm{T} > 0.3\ \hbox {GeV}/c$$ p T > 0.3 GeV / c and pseudorapidity $$|\eta | < 0.8$$ | η | < 0.8 . The properties of the correlation peaks appearing in the near- and away-side regions (for $$\Delta \varphi \approx 0$$ Δ φ ≈ 0 and $$\Delta \varphi \approx \pi $$ Δ φ ≈ π , respectively) were extracted via a fit to the azimuthal correlation functions. The shape of the correlation functions and the near- and away-side peak features are found to be consistent in pp and p–Pb collisions, showing no modifications due to nuclear effects within uncertainties. The results are compared with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations performed with the PYTHIA, POWHEG+PYTHIA, HERWIG, and EPOS 3 event generators.« less
  5. Abstract The study of (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation mechanism of loosely bound states in high-energy hadronic collisions. In this paper the production of $$\text {(anti-)deuterons}$$ (anti-)deuterons is studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity in inelastic pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s}=13$$ s = 13 TeV using the ALICE experiment. Thanks to the large number of accumulated minimum bias events, it has been possible to measure (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions up to the same charged particle multiplicity ( $${\mathrm {d} N_{ch}/\mathrm {d} \eta } \sim 26$$ dmore »N ch / d η ∼ 26 ) as measured in p–Pb collisions at similar centre-of-mass energies. Within the uncertainties, the deuteron yield in pp collisions resembles the one in p–Pb interactions, suggesting a common formation mechanism behind the production of light nuclei in hadronic interactions. In this context the measurements are compared with the expectations of coalescence and statistical hadronisation models (SHM).« less
  6. Abstract This paper presents the measurements of $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± , $$\mathrm {K}^{\pm }$$ K ± , $$\text {p}$$ p and $$\overline{\mathrm{p}} $$ p ¯ transverse momentum ( $$p_{\text {T}}$$ p T ) spectra as a function of charged-particle multiplicity density in proton–proton (pp) collisions at $$\sqrt{s}\ =\ 13\ \text {TeV}$$ s = 13 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. Such study allows us to isolate the center-of-mass energy dependence of light-flavour particle production. The measurements reported here cover a $$p_{\text {T}}$$ p T range from 0.1 to 20 $$\text {GeV}/c$$ GeV / c and aremore »done in the rapidity interval $$|y|<0.5$$ | y | < 0.5 . The $$p_{\text {T}}$$ p T -differential particle ratios exhibit an evolution with multiplicity, similar to that observed in pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s}\ =\ 7\ \text {TeV}$$ s = 7 TeV , which is qualitatively described by some of the hydrodynamical and pQCD-inspired models discussed in this paper. Furthermore, the $$p_{\text {T}}$$ p T -integrated hadron-to-pion yield ratios measured in pp collisions at two different center-of-mass energies are consistent when compared at similar multiplicities. This also extends to strange and multi-strange hadrons, suggesting that, at LHC energies, particle hadrochemistry scales with particle multiplicity the same way under different collision energies and colliding systems.« less