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  1. Abstract

    We analyze a sample of 25 [Nev] (λ3426) emission-line galaxies at 1.4 <z< 2.3 using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 G102 and G141 grism observations from the CANDELS LyαEmission at Reionization (CLEAR) survey. [Nev] emission probes extremely energetic photoionization (creation potential of 97.11 eV) and is often attributed to energetic radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), shocks from supernovae, or an otherwise very hard ionizing spectrum from the stellar continuum. In this work, we use [Nev] in conjunction with other rest-frame UV/optical emission lines ([Oii]λλ3726, 3729, [Neiii]λ3869, Hβ, [Oiii]λλ4959, 5007, Hα+[Nii]λλ6548, 6583, [Sii]λλ6716, 6731), deep (2–7 Ms) X-ray observations (from Chandra), and mid-infrared imaging (from Spitzer) to study the origin of this emission and to place constraints on the nature of the ionizing engine. The majority of the [Nev]-detected galaxies have properties consistent with ionization from AGNs. However, for our [Nev]-selected sample, the X-ray luminosities are consistent with local (z≲ 0.1) X-ray-selected Seyferts, but the [Nev] luminosities are more consistent with those fromz∼ 1 X-ray-selected QSOs. The excess [Nev] emission requires either reduced hard X-rays or a ∼0.1 keV excess. We discuss possible origins of the apparent [Nev] excess, which could be related to the “soft (X-ray) excess”more »observed in some QSOs and Seyferts and/or be a consequence of a complex/anisotropic geometry for the narrow-line region, combined with absorption from a warm, relativistic wind ejected from the accretion disk. We also consider implications for future studies of extreme high-ionization systems in the epoch of reionization (z≳ 6) with the James Webb Space Telescope.

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  2. Abstract

    We investigate spatially resolved emission-line ratios in a sample of 219 galaxies (0.6 <z< 1.3) detected using the G102 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 taken as part of the CANDELS LyαEmission at Reionization survey to measure ionization profiles and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). We analyze [Oiii] and Hβemission-line maps, enabling us to spatially resolve the [Oiii]/Hβemission-line ratio across the galaxies in the sample. We compare the [Oiii]/Hβratio in galaxy centers and outer annular regions to measure ionization differences and investigate the potential of sources with nuclear ionization to host AGN. We investigate some of the individual galaxies that are candidates to host strong nuclear ionization and find that they often have low stellar mass and are undetected in X-rays, as expected for low-luminosity AGN in low-mass galaxies. We do not find evidence for a significant population of off-nuclear AGN or other clumps of off-nuclear ionization. We model the observed distribution of [Oiii]/Hβspatial profiles and find that most galaxies are consistent with a small or zero difference between their nuclear and off-nuclear line ratios, but 6%–16% of galaxies in the sample are likely to host nuclear [Oiii]/Hβthat is ∼0.5 dex higher thanmore »in their outer regions. This study is limited by large uncertainties in most of the measured [Oiii]/Hβspatial profiles; therefore, deeper data, e.g., from deeper HST/WFC3 programs or from JWST/NIRISS, are needed to more reliably measure the spatially resolved emission-line conditions of individual high-redshift galaxies.

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  3. Abstract

    We present an overview of the CANDELS LyαEmission At Reionization (CLEAR) survey. CLEAR is a 130 orbit program of the Hubble Space Telescope using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) IR G102 grism. CLEAR targets 12 pointings divided between the GOODS-N and GOODS-S fields of the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). Combined with existing spectroscopic data from other programs, the full CLEAR data set includes spectroscopic imaging of these fields over 0.8–1.7μm. In this paper, we describe the CLEAR survey, the survey strategy, the data acquisition, reduction, processing, and science products and catalogs released alongside this paper. The catalogs include emission line fluxes and redshifts derived from the combination of the photometry and grism spectroscopy for 6048 galaxies, primarily ranging from 0.2 ≲z≲ 3. We also provide an overview of CLEAR’s science goals and results. In conjunction with this paper we provide links to electronic versions of the data products, including 1D+2D extracted spectra and emission line maps.


    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are a natural outcome of galaxy mergers and should form frequently in galactic nuclei. Sub-parsec binaries can be identified from their bright electromagnetic emission, e.g. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) with Doppler shifted broad emission lines or AGN with periodic variability, as well as from the emission of strong gravitational radiation. The most massive binaries (with total mass >108M⊙) emit in the nanohertz band and are targeted by Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs). Here we examine the synergy between electromagnetic and gravitational wave signatures of SMBHBs. We connect both signals to the orbital dynamics of the binary and examine the common link between them, laying the foundation for joint multimessenger observations. We find that periodic variability arising from relativistic Doppler boost is the most promising electromagnetic signature to connect with GWs. We delineate the parameter space (binary total mass/chirp mass versus binary period/GW frequency) for which joint observations are feasible. Currently multimessenger detections are possible only for the most massive and nearby galaxies, limited by the sensitivity of PTAs. However, we demonstrate that as PTAs collect more data in the upcoming years, the overlapping parameter space is expected to expand significantly.

  5. Abstract

    We explore the possibility and practical limitations of using a three-line approach to measure both the slope and normalization of the dust attenuation law in individual galaxies. To do this, we focus on a sample of 11 galaxies with existing ground-based Balmer Hαand Hβmeasurements from slit spectra, plus space-based grism constraints on Paschen-β. When accounting for observational uncertainties, we show that one galaxy has a well-constrained dust-law slope and normalization in the range expected from theoretical arguments; this galaxy therefore provides an example of what may be possible in the future. However, most of the galaxies are best fit by unusually steep or shallow slopes. We then explore whether additional astrophysical effects or observational biases could explain the elevated Paschen-β/Hαratios driving these results. We find that galaxies with high Paschen-β/Hαratios may be explained by slightly sub-unity covering fractions (>97%). Alternatively, differing slit losses for different lines can have a large impact on the results, emphasizing the importance of measuring all three lines with a consistent spectroscopic aperture. We conclude that, while the three-line approach to constraining the shape of the dust attenuation law in individual galaxies is promising, deep observations and a consistent observational strategy will be required tomore »minimize observational biases and to disentangle the astrophysically interesting effect of differing covering fractions. The James Webb Space Telescope will provide more sensitive measurements of Balmer and Paschen lines for galaxies atz≈ 0.3–2, enabling uniform constraints on the optical–infrared dust attenuation law and its intrinsic variation.

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  6. Abstract

    We present a high-cadence multiepoch analysis of dramatic variability of three broad emission lines (Mgii, Hβ, and Hα) in the spectra of the luminous quasar (λLλ(5100 Å) = 4.7 × 1044erg s−1) SDSS J141041.25+531849.0 atz= 0.359 with 127 spectroscopic epochs over nine years of monitoring (2013–2022). We observe anticorrelations between the broad emission-line widths and flux in all three emission lines, indicating that all three broad emission lines “breathe” in response to stochastic continuum variations. We also observe dramatic radial velocity shifts in all three broad emission lines, ranging from Δv∼ 400 km s−1to ∼800 km s−1, that vary over the course of the monitoring period. Our preferred explanation for the broad-line variability is complex kinematics in the gas in the broad-line region. We suggest a model for the broad-line variability that includes a combination of gas inflow with a radial gradient, an azimuthal asymmetry (e.g., a hot spot), superimposed on the stochastic flux-driven changes to the optimal emission region (“line breathing”). Similar instances of line-profile variability due to complex gas kinematics around quasars are likely to represent an important source of false positives in radial velocity searches for binary black holes, which typically lack the kind of high-cadencemore »data we analyze here. The long-duration, wide-field, and many-epoch spectroscopic monitoring of SDSS-V BHM-RM provides an excellent opportunity for identifying and characterizing broad emission-line variability, and the inferred nature of the inner gas environment, of luminous quasars.

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  7. Abstract We use Paschen- β (Pa β ; 1282 nm) observations from the Hubble Space Telescope G141 grism to study the star formation and dust-attenuation properties of a sample of 29 low-redshift ( z < 0.287) galaxies in the CANDELS Ly α Emission at Reionization survey. We first compare the nebular attenuation from Pa β /H α with the stellar attenuation inferred from the spectral energy distribution, finding that the galaxies in our sample are consistent with an average ratio of the continuum attenuation to the nebular gas of 0.44, but with a large amount of excess scatter beyond the observational uncertainties. Much of this scatter is linked to a large variation between the nebular dust attenuation as measured by (space-based) Pa β to (ground-based) H α to that from (ground-based) H α /H β . This implies there are important differences between attenuation measured from grism-based/wide-aperture Pa β fluxes and the ground-based/slit-measured Balmer decrement. We next compare star formation rates (SFRs) from Pa β to those from dust-corrected UV. We perform a survival analysis to infer a census of Pa β emission implied by both detections and nondetections. We find evidence that galaxies with lower stellar mass have moremore »scatter in their ratio of Pa β to attenuation-corrected UV SFRs. When considering our Pa β detection limits, this observation supports the idea that lower-mass galaxies experience “burstier” star formation histories. Together, these results show that Pa β is a valuable tracer of a galaxy’s SFR, probing different timescales of star formation and potentially revealing star formation that is otherwise missed by UV and optical tracers.« less
  8. Abstract

    Using spatially resolved Hαemission line maps of star-forming galaxies, we study the spatial distribution of star formation over a wide range in redshift (0.5 ≲z≲ 1.7). Ourz∼ 0.5 measurements come from deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 G102 grism spectroscopy obtained as part of the CANDELS LyαEmission at Reionization Experiment. For star-forming galaxies with log(M*/M) ≥ 8.96, the mean Hαeffective radius is 1.2 ± 0.1 times larger than that of the stellar continuum, implying inside-out growth via star formation. This measurement agrees within 1σwith those measured atz∼ 1 andz∼ 1.7 from the 3D-HST and KMOS3Dsurveys, respectively, implying no redshift evolution. However, we observe redshift evolution in the stellar mass surface density within 1 kpc (Σ1kpc). Star-forming galaxies atz∼ 0.5 with a stellar mass of log(M*/M) = 9.5 have a ratio of Σ1kpcin Hαrelative to their stellar continuum that is lower by (19 ± 2)% compared toz∼ 1 galaxies. Σ1kpc,Hα1kpc,Contdecreases toward higher stellar masses. The majority of the redshift evolution in Σ1kpc,Hα1kpc,Contversus stellar mass stems from the fact that log(Σ1kpc,Hα) declines twice as much as log(Σ1kpc,Cont) fromz∼ 1 to 0.5 (at a fixed stellar mass of log(M*/M) = 9.5). By comparing our results to the TNG50 cosmologicalmore »magneto-hydrodynamical simulation, we rule out dust as the driver of this evolution. Our results are consistent with inside-out quenching following in the wake of inside-out growth, the former of which drives the significant drop in Σ1kpc,Hαfromz∼ 1 toz∼ 0.5.

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  9. Abstract We present accretion-disk structure measurements from UV–optical reverberation mapping (RM) observations of a sample of eight quasars at 0.24 < z < 0.85. Ultraviolet photometry comes from two cycles of Hubble Space Telescope monitoring, accompanied by multiband optical monitoring by the Las Cumbres Observatory network and Liverpool Telescopes. The targets were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project sample with reliable black hole mass measurements from H β RM results. We measure significant lags between the UV and various optical griz bands using JAVELIN and CREAM methods. We use the significant lag results from both methods to fit the accretion-disk structure using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. We study the accretion disk as a function of disk normalization, temperature scaling, and efficiency. We find direct evidence for diffuse nebular emission from Balmer and Fe ii lines over discrete wavelength ranges. We also find that our best-fit disk color profile is broadly consistent with the Shakura & Sunyaev disk model. We compare our UV–optical lags to the disk sizes inferred from optical–optical lags of the same quasars and find that our results are consistent with these quasars being drawn from a limited high-lag subset of themore »broader population. Our results are therefore broadly consistent with models that suggest longer disk lags in a subset of quasars, for example, due to a nonzero size of the ionizing corona and/or magnetic heating contributing to the disk response.« less
  10. Abstract We report on the gas-phase metallicity gradients of a sample of 238 star-forming galaxies at 0.6 < z < 2.6, measured through deep near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope slitless spectroscopy. The observations include 12 orbit depth Hubble/WFC3 G102 grism spectra taken as a part of the CANDELS Ly α Emission at Reionization (CLEAR) survey, and archival WFC3 G102+G141 grism spectra overlapping the CLEAR footprint. The majority of galaxies in this sample are consistent with having a zero or slightly positive metallicity gradient ( dZ / dR ≥ 0, i.e., increasing with radius) across the full mass range probed (8.5 < log M * / M ⊙ < 10.5). We measure the intrinsic population scatter of the metallicity gradients, and show that it increases with decreasing stellar mass—consistent with previous reports in the literature, but confirmed here with a much larger sample. To understand the physical mechanisms governing this scatter, we search for correlations between the observed gradient and various stellar population properties at fixed mass. However, we find no evidence for a correlation with the galaxy properties we consider—including star formation rates, sizes, star formation rate surface densities, and star formation rates per gravitational potential energy. We use the observedmore »weakness of these correlations to provide material constraints for predicted intrinsic correlations from theoretical models.« less