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    We analyse new multifilter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe out to ≈2400 d after maximum light, the latest observations to date of a SN Ia. We model the pseudo-bolometric light curve with a simple radioactive decay model and find energy input from both 57Co and 55Fe are needed to power the late-time luminosity. This is the first detection of 55Fe in a SN Ia. We consider potential sources of contamination such as a surviving companion star or delaying the deposition time-scale for 56Co positrons but these scenarios are ultimately disfavored. The relative isotopic abundances place direct constraints on the burning conditions experienced by the white dwarf (WD). Additionally, we place a conservative upper limit of <10−3 M⊙ on the synthesized mass of 44Ti. Only two classes of explosion models are currently consistent with all observations of SN 2011fe: (1) the delayed detonation of a low-ρc, near-MCh (1.2–1.3 M⊙) WD, or (2) a sub-MCh (1.0–1.1 M⊙) WD experiencing a thin-shell double detonation.

  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    We present three new spectra of the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe covering ≈480–850 days after maximum light and show that the ejecta undergoes a rapid ionization shift at ∼500 days after explosion. The prominent Feiiiemission lines at ≈4600 Å are replaced with Fei+Feiiblends at ∼4400 Å and ∼5400 Å. The ≈7300 Å feature, which is produced by [Feii]+[Niii] at ≲400 days after explosion, is replaced by broad (≈±15,000 km s−1) symmetric [Caii] emission. Models predict this ionization transition occurring ∼100 days later than what is observed, which we attribute to clumping in the ejecta. Finally, we use the nebular-phase spectra to test several proposed progenitor scenarios for SN 2011fe. Nondetections of H and He exclude nearby nondegenerate companions, [Oi] nondetections disfavor the violent merger of two white dwarfs, and the symmetric emission-line profiles favor a symmetric explosion.

  4. Abstract

    We present a JWST/MIRI low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic observation of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2021aefx at +323 days past rest-frameB-band maximum light. The spectrum ranges from 4 to 14μm and shows many unique qualities, including a flat-topped [Ariii] 8.991μm profile, a strongly tilted [Coiii] 11.888μm feature, and multiple stable Ni lines. These features provide critical information about the physics of the explosion. The observations are compared to synthetic spectra from detailed non–local thermodynamic equilibrium multidimensional models. The results of the best-fitting model are used to identify the components of the spectral blends and provide a quantitative comparison to the explosion physics. Emission line profiles and the presence of electron capture elements are used to constrain the mass of the exploding white dwarf (WD) and the chemical asymmetries in the ejecta. We show that the observations of SN 2021aefx are consistent with an off-center delayed detonation explosion of a near–Chandrasekhar mass (MCh) WD at a viewing angle of −30° relative to the point of the deflagration to detonation transition. From the strengths of the stable Ni lines, we determine that there is little to no mixing in the central regions of the ejecta. Based on bothmore »the presence of stable Ni and the Ar velocity distributions, we obtain a strict lower limit of 1.2Mfor the initial WD, implying that most sub-MChexplosions models are not viable models for SN 2021aefx. The analysis here shows the crucial importance of MIR spectra in distinguishing between explosion scenarios for SNe Ia.

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  5. Abstract We present and analyze a near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of the underluminous Type Ia supernova SN 2020qxp/ASASSN-20jq obtained with NIRES at the Keck Observatory, 191 days after B -band maximum. The spectrum is dominated by a number of broad emission features, including the [Fe ii ] at 1.644 μ m, which is highly asymmetric with a tilted top and a peak redshifted by ≈2000 km s −1 . In comparison with 2D non-LTE synthetic spectra computed from 3D simulations of off-center delayed-detonation Chandrasekhar-mass ( M ch ) white dwarf (WD) models, we find good agreement between the observed lines and the synthetic profiles, and are able to unravel the structure of the progenitor’s envelope. We find that the size and tilt of the [Fe ii ] 1.644 μ m profile (in velocity space) is an effective way to determine the location of an off-center delayed-detonation transition (DDT) and the viewing angle, and it requires a WD with a high central density of ∼4 × 10 9 g cm −3 . We also tentatively identify a stable Ni feature around 1.9 μ m characterized by a “pot-belly” profile that is slightly offset with respect to the kinematic center. In the casemore »of SN 2020qxp/ASASSN-20jq, we estimate that the location of the DDT is ∼0.3 M WD off center, which gives rise to an asymmetric distribution of the underlying ejecta. We also demonstrate that low-luminosity and high-density WD SN Ia progenitors exhibit a very strong overlap of Ca and 56 Ni in physical space. This results in the formation of a prevalent [Ca ii ] 0.73 μ m emission feature that is sensitive to asymmetry effects. Our findings are discussed within the context of alternative scenarios, including off-center C/O detonations in He-triggered sub- M Ch WDs and the direct collision of two WDs. Snapshot programs with Gemini/Keck/Very Large Telescope (VLT)/ELT-class instruments and our spectropolarimetry program are complementary to mid-IR spectra by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).« less
  6. ABSTRACT We present Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectroscopy of ESO 253−G003, which hosts a known active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko, observed as part of the All-weather MUse Supernova Integral-field of Nearby Galaxies survey. The MUSE observations reveal that the inner region hosts two AGN separated by $1.4\pm 0.1~\rm {kpc}$ (≈1${_{.}^{\prime\prime}}$7). The brighter nucleus has asymmetric broad permitted emission-line profiles and is associated with the archival AGN designation. The fainter nucleus does not have a broad emission-line component but exhibits other AGN characteristics, including $\hbox{$v_{\rm {FWHM}}$} \approx 700~\hbox{km~s$^{-1}$}$ forbidden line emission, $\rm{\log _{10}(\rm{[O\,\small {III}]}/\rm{H\beta})} \approx 1.1$, and high-excitation potential emission lines, such as [Fe vii] λ6086 and He ii λ4686. The host galaxy exhibits a disturbed morphology with large kpc-scale tidal features, potential outflows from both nuclei, and a likely superbubble. A circular relativistic disc model cannot reproduce the asymmetric broad emission-line profiles in the brighter nucleus, but two non-axisymmetric disc models provide good fits to the broad emission-line profiles: an elliptical disc model and a circular disc + spiral arm model. Implications for the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko are discussed.
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