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  1. As distributed applications become increasingly complex, so do their scheduling requirements. This development calls for cluster schedulers that are not only general, but also evolvable. Unfortunately, most existing cluster schedulers are not evolvable: when confronted with new requirements, they need major rewrites to support these requirements. Examples include gang-scheduling support in Kubernetes [6, 39] or task-affinity in Spark [39]. Some cluster schedulers [14, 30] expose physical resources to applications to address this. While these approaches are evolvable, they push the burden of implementing scheduling mechanisms in addition to the policies entirely to the application. ESCHER is a cluster scheduler design that achieves both evolvability and application-level simplicity. ESCHER uses an abstraction exposed by several recent frameworks (which we call ephemeral resources) that lets the application express scheduling constraints as resource requirements. These requirements are then satisfied by a simple mechanism matching resource demands to available resources. We implement ESCHER on Kubernetes and Ray, and show that this abstraction can be used to express common policies offered by monolithic schedulers while allowing applications to easily create new custom policies hitherto unsupported. 
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  2. There is a growing rise of applications that need to support a library of models with diverse latency-accuracy trade-offs on a Pareto frontier, especially in the health-care domain. This work presents an end-to-end system for training and serving weight-sharing models. On the training end, we leverage recent research in creating a family of models on the latency- accuracy Pareto frontier that share weights, reducing the total number of unique parameters. On the serving (inference end), we propose a novel accelerator FastSwitch that extracts weight reuse across different models, thereby providing fast real-time switching between different models. 
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  3. Koyejo, S. ; Mohamed, S. ; Agarwal, A. ; Belgrave, D. ; Cho, K. ; Oh, A. (Ed.)
    Machine Learning (ML) research has focused on maximizing the accuracy of predictive tasks. ML models, however, are increasingly more complex, resource intensive, and costlier to deploy in resource-constrained environments. These issues are exacerbated for prediction tasks with sequential classification on progressively transitioned stages with “happens-before” relation between them.We argue that it is possible to “unfold” a monolithic single multi-class classifier, typically trained for all stages using all data, into a series of single-stage classifiers. Each single- stage classifier can be cascaded gradually from cheaper to more expensive binary classifiers that are trained using only the necessary data modalities or features required for that stage. UnfoldML is a cost-aware and uncertainty-based dynamic 2D prediction pipeline for multi-stage classification that enables (1) navigation of the accuracy/cost tradeoff space, (2) reducing the spatio-temporal cost of inference by orders of magnitude, and (3) early prediction on proceeding stages. UnfoldML achieves orders of magnitude better cost in clinical settings, while detecting multi- stage disease development in real time. It achieves within 0.1% accuracy from the highest-performing multi-class baseline, while saving close to 20X on spatio- temporal cost of inference and earlier (3.5hrs) disease onset prediction. We also show that UnfoldML generalizes to image classification, where it can predict different level of labels (from coarse to fine) given different level of abstractions of a image, saving close to 5X cost with as little as 0.4% accuracy reduction. 
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  4. Hyperparameter tuning is essential to achieving state-of-the-art accuracy in machine learning (ML), but requires substantial compute resources to perform. Existing systems primarily focus on effectively allocating resources for a hyperparameter tuning job under fixed resource constraints. We show that the available parallelism in such jobs changes dynamically over the course of execution and, therefore, presents an opportunity to leverage the elasticity of the cloud. In particular, we address the problem of minimizing the financial cost of executing a hyperparameter tuning job, subject to a time constraint. We present RubberBand---the first framework for cost-efficient, elastic execution of hyperparameter tuning jobs in the cloud. RubberBand utilizes performance instrumentation and cloud pricing to model job completion time and cost prior to runtime, and generate a cost-efficient, elastic resource allocation plan. RubberBand is able to efficiently execute this plan and realize a cost reduction of up to 2x in comparison to static allocation baselines. 
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    Serving ML prediction pipelines spanning multiple models and hardware accelerators is a key challenge in production machine learning. Optimally configuring these pipelines to meet tight end-to-end latency goals is complicated by the interaction between model batch size, the choice of hardware accelerator, and variation in the query arrival process. In this paper we introduce InferLine, a system which provisions and manages the individual stages of prediction pipelines to meet end-to-end tail latency constraints while minimizing cost. InferLine consists of a low-frequency combinatorial planner and a high-frequency auto-scaling tuner. The low-frequency planner leverages stage-wise profiling, discrete event simulation, and constrained combinatorial search to automatically select hardware type, replication, and batching parameters for each stage in the pipeline. The high-frequency tuner uses network calculus to auto-scale each stage to meet tail latency goals in response to changes in the query arrival process. We demonstrate that InferLine outperforms existing approaches by up to 7.6x in cost while achieving up to 34.5x lower latency SLO miss rate on realistic workloads and generalizes across state-of-the-art model serving frameworks. 
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