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  1. Abstract

    We present the KODIAQ-Z survey aimed to characterize the cool, photoionized gas at 2.2 ≲z≲ 3.6 in 202 Hi-selected absorbers with 14.6 ≤logNHI< 20 that probe the interface between galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM). We find that gas with14.6logNHI<20at 2.2 ≲z≲ 3.6 can be metal-rich (−1.6 ≲ [X/H] ≲ − 0.2) as seen in damped Lyαabsorbers (DLAs); it can also be very metal-poor ([X/H] < − 2.4) or even pristine ([X/H] < − 3.8), which is not observed in DLAs but is common in the IGM. For16<logNHI<20absorbers, the frequency of pristine absorbers is about 1%–10%, while for14.6logNHI16absorbers it is 10%–20%, similar to the diffuse IGM. Supersolar gas is extremely rare (<1%) at these redshifts. The factor of several thousand spread from the lowest to highest metallicities and large metallicity variations (a factor of a few to >100) between absorbers separated by less than Δv< 500 km s−1imply that the metals are poorly mixed in14.6logNHI<20gas. We show that these photoionized absorbers contribute to aboutmore »14% of the cosmic baryons and 45% of the cosmic metals at 2.2 ≲z≲ 3.6. We find that the mean metallicity increases withNHi, consistent with what is found inz< 1 gas. The metallicity of gas in this column density regime has increased by a factor ∼8 from 2.2 ≲z≲ 3.6 toz< 1, but the contribution of the14.6logNHI<19absorbers to the total metal budget of the universe atz< 1 is a quarter of that at 2.2 ≲z≲ 3.6. We show that FOGGIE cosmological zoom-in simulations have a similar evolution of [X/H] withNHi, which is not observed in lower-resolution simulations. In these simulations, very metal-poor absorbers with [X/H] < − 2.4 atz∼ 2–3 are tracers of inflows, while higher-metallicity absorbers are a mixture of inflows and outflows.

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  2. Abstract The classical definition of the virial temperature of a galaxy halo excludes a fundamental contribution to the energy partition of the halo: the kinetic energy of nonthermal gas motions. Using simulations of low-redshift, ∼ L * galaxies from the Figuring Out Gas & Galaxies In Enzo (FOGGIE) project that are optimized to resolve low-density gas, we show that the kinetic energy of nonthermal motions is roughly equal to the energy of thermal motions. The simulated FOGGIE halos have ∼2× lower bulk temperatures than expected from a classical virial equilibrium, owing to significant nonthermal kinetic energy that is formally excluded from the definition of T vir . We explicitly derive a modified virial temperature including nonthermal gas motions that provides a more accurate description of gas temperatures for simulated halos in virial equilibrium. Strong bursts of stellar feedback drive the simulated FOGGIE halos out of virial equilibrium, but the halo gas cannot be accurately described by the standard virial temperature even when in virial equilibrium. Compared to the standard virial temperature, the cooler modified virial temperature implies other effects on halo gas: (i) the thermal gas pressure is lower, (ii) radiative cooling is more efficient, (iii) O vi absorbing gasmore »that traces the virial temperature may be prevalent in halos of a higher mass than expected, (iv) gas mass estimates from X-ray surface brightness profiles may be incorrect, and (v) turbulent motions make an important contribution to the energy balance of a galaxy halo.« less
  3. Abstract

    We combine 126 new galaxy-Oviabsorber pairs from the CGM2survey with 123 pairs drawn from the literature to examine the simultaneous dependence of the column density of Oviabsorbers (NOVI) on galaxy stellar mass, star-formation rate, and impact parameter. The combined sample consists of 249 galaxy-Oviabsorber pairs coveringz= 0–0.6, with host galaxy stellar massesM*= 107.8–1011.2Mand galaxy-absorber impact parametersR= 0–400 proper kiloparsecs. In this work, we focus on the variation ofNOVIwith galaxy mass and impact parameter among the star-forming galaxies in the sample. We find that the averageNOVIwithin one virial radius of a star-forming galaxy is greatest for star-forming galaxies withM*= 109.2–1010M. Star-forming galaxies withM*between 108and 1011.2Mcan explain most Ovisystems with column densities greater than 1013.5cm−2. Sixty percent of the Ovimass associated with a star-forming galaxy is found within one virial radius, and 35% is found between one and two virial radii. In general, we find that some departure from hydrostatic equilibrium in the CGM is necessary to reproduce the observed Oviamount, galaxy mass dependence, and extent. Our measurements serve as a test set for CGM models over a broad range of host galaxy masses.

  4. Abstract We report the discovery of two kinematically anomalous atomic hydrogen (H i ) clouds in M 100 (NGC 4321), which was observed as part of the Deciphering the Interplay between the Interstellar medium, Stars, and the Circumgalactic medium (DIISC) survey in H i 21 cm at 3.3 km s −1 spectroscopic and 44″ × 30″ spatial resolution using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. 15 15 The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. These clouds were identified as structures that show significant kinematic offsets from the rotating disk of M 100. The velocity offsets of 40 km s −1 observed in these clouds are comparable to the offsets seen in intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. We find that one anomalous cloud in M 100 is associated with star-forming regions detected in H α and far-ultraviolet imaging. Our investigation shows that anomalous clouds in M 100 may originate from multiple mechanisms, such as star formation feedback-driven outflows, ram pressure stripping, and tidal interactions with satellite galaxies. Moreover, we do not detect any cool CGM atmore »38.8 kpc from the center of M 100, giving an upper limit of N(H i ) ≤1.7 × 10 13 cm −2 (3 σ ). Since M 100 is in the Virgo cluster, the nonexistence of neutral/cool CGM is a likely pathway for turning it into a red galaxy.« less