We review recent developments in Jackiw–Teitelboim gravity. This is a simple solvable model of quantum gravity in two dimensions (that arises e.g. from the swave sector of higher dimensional gravity systems with spherical symmetry). Due to its solvability, it has proven to be a fruitful toy model to analyze important questions such as the relation between black holes and chaos, the role of wormholes in black hole physics and holography, and the way in which information that falls into a black hole can be recovered.
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Abstract 
A bstract We analyze deformations of $$ \mathcal{N} $$ N = 1 JackiwTeitelboim (JT) supergravity by adding a gas of defects, equivalent to changing the dilaton potential. We compute the Euclidean partition function in a topological expansion and find that it matches the perturbative expansion of a random matrix model to all orders. The matrix model implements an average over the Hamiltonian of a dual holographic description and provides a stable nonperturbative completion of these theories of $$ \mathcal{N} $$ N = 1 dilatonsupergravity. For some range of deformations, the supergravity spectral density becomes negative, yielding an illdefined topological expansion. To solve this problem, we use the matrix model description and show the negative spectrum is resolved via a phase transition analogous to the GrossWittenWadia transition. The matrix model contains a rich and novel phase structure that we explore in detail, using both perturbative and nonperturbative techniques.more » « less

Abstract Due to the failure of thermodynamics for low temperature nearextremal black holes, it has long been conjectured that a ‘thermodynamic mass gap’ exists between an extremal black hole and the lightest nearextremal state. For nonsupersymmetric nearextremal black holes in Einstein gravity with an AdS 2 throat, no such gap was found. Rather, at that energy scale, the spectrum exhibits a continuum of states, up to nonperturbative corrections. In this paper, we compute the partition function of nearBPS black holes in supergravity where the emergent, broken, symmetry is PSU (1, 12). To reliably compute this partition function, we show that the gravitational path integral can be reduced to that of a N = 4 supersymmetric extension of the Schwarzian theory, which we define and exactly quantize. In contrast to the nonsupersymmetric case, we find that black holes in supergravity have a mass gap and a large extremal black hole degeneracy consistent with the Bekenstein–Hawking area. Our results verify a plethora of string theory conjectures, concerning the scale of the mass gap and the counting of extremal microstates.more » « less