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  1. Abstract

    We consider WIYN/Hydra spectra of 329 photometric candidate members of the 420 Myr old open cluster M48 and report lithium detections or upper limits for 234 members and likely members. The 171 single members define a number of notable Li-mass trends, some delineated even more clearly than in Hyades/Praesepe: the giants are consistent with subgiant Li dilution and prior MS Li depletion due to rotational mixing. A dwarfs (8600–7700 K) have upper limits higher than the presumed initial cluster Li abundance. Two of five late A dwarfs (7700–7200 K) are Li-rich, possibly due to diffusion, planetesimal accretion, and/or engulfment of hydrogen-poor planets. Early F dwarfs already show evidence of Li depletion seen in older clusters. The Li–Tefftrends of the Li Dip (6675–6200 K), Li Plateau (6200–6000 K), and G and K dwarfs (6000–4000 K) are very clearly delineated and are intermediate to those of the 120 Myr old Pleiades and 650 Myr old Hyades/Praesepe, which suggests a sequence of Li depletion with age. The cool side of the Li Dip is especially well defined with little scatter. The Li–Tefftrend is very tight in the Li Plateau and early G dwarfs, but scatter increases gradually for cooler dwarfs. These patterns support and constrain models of the universally dominant Li depletion mechanism for FGK dwarfs, namely rotational mixing due to angular momentum loss; we discuss how diffusion and gravity-wave-driven mixing may also play roles. For late G/K dwarfs, faster rotators show higher Li than slower rotators, and we discuss possible connections between angular momentum loss and Li depletion.

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  2. Abstract

    Precision CCDuvbyCaHβphotometry is presented of the old cluster, M67, covering one square degree with typical internal precision at the 0.005–0.020 mag level toV∼ 17. The photometry is calibrated using standards over a wide range in luminosity and temperature from NGC 752 and zeroed to the standard system via published photoelectric observations. Relative to NGC 752, differential offsets in reddening and metallicity are derived using astrometric members, supplemented by radial velocity information. From single-star members, offsets in the sense (M67−NGC 752) areδE(by) = −0.005 ± 0.001 (sem) mag from 327 F/G dwarfs andδ[Fe/H] = 0.062 ± 0.006 (sem) dex from the combinedm1andhkindices of 249 F dwarfs, leading toE(by) = 0.021 ± 0.004 (sem) and [Fe/H]M67= +0.030 ± 0.016 (sem) assuming [Fe/H]Hyades= +0.12. With probable binaries eliminated usingc1, (by) indices, 83 members with (π/σπ) > 50 generate (mM)0= 8.220 ± 0.005 (sem) for NGC 752 and an isochronal age of 1.45 ± 0.05 Gyr. Using the same parallax restriction for 312 stars, M67 has (mM) = 9.77 ± 0.02 (sem), leading to an age tied solely to the luminosity of the subgiant branch of 3.70 ± 0.03 Gyr. The turnoff color spread implies ±0.1 Gyr, but the turnoff morphology defines a younger age/higher mass for the stars, consistent with recent binary analysis and broadband photometry indicating possible missing physics in the isochrones. Anomalous stars positioned blueward of the turnoff are discussed.

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    We present WIYN1/Hydra spectra of 34 red giant candidate members of NGC 188, which, together with WOCS2 and Gaia data yield 23 single members, 6 binary members, 4 single non-members, and 1 binary non-member. We report [Fe/H] for 29 members and derive [Fe/H]NGC188  = +0.064 ± 0.018 dex (σμ) (sky spectra yield A(Fe)⊙  = 7.520 ± 0.015 dex (σμ)). We discuss effects on the derived parameters of varying Yale-Yonsei isochrones to fit the turnoff. We take advantage of the coolest, lowest gravity giants to refine the line list near Li 6707.8 Å. Using synthesis we derive detections of A(Li)3  = 1.17, 1.65, 2.04, and 0.60 dex for stars 4346, 4705, 5027, and 6353, respectively, and 3σ upper limits for the other members. Whereas only two of the detections meet the traditional criterion for ‘Li-richness’ of A(Li) > 1.5 dex, we argue that since the cluster A(Li) vanish as subgiants evolve to the base of the RGB, all four stars are Li-rich in this cluster’s context. An incidence of even a few Li-rich stars in a sample of 29 stars is far higher than what recent large surveys have found in the field. All four stars lie either slightly or substantially away from the cluster fiducial sequence, possibly providing clues about their Li-richness. We discuss a number of possibilities for the origin for the Li in each star, and suggest potentially discriminating future observations.

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