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  1. Abstract Hydrogenation reactions are a major route of electron and proton flow on Earth. Interfacing geology and organic chemistry, hydrogenations occupy pivotal points in the Earth’s global geochemical cycles. Some examples of hydrogenation reactions on Earth today include the production and consumption of methane in both abiotic and biotic reactions, the reduction of protons in hydrothermal settings, and the biological synthesis and degradation of fatty acids. Hydrogenation reactions were likely important for prebiotic chemistry on the early Earth, and today serve as one of the fundamental reaction classes that enable cellular life to construct biomolecules. An understanding and awareness of hydrogenation reactions is helpful for comprehending the larger web of molecular and material inter-conversions on our planet. In this brief review we detail some important hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions as they relate to geology, biology, industry, and atmospheric chemistry. Such reactions have implications ranging from the suite of reactions on early Earth to industrial applications like the production of hydrocarbon fuel.