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Consider the problem of determining the effect of a compound on a specific cell type. To answer this question, researchers traditionally need to run an experiment applying the drug of interest to that cell type. This approach is not scalable: given a large number of different actions (compounds) and a large number of different contexts (cell types), it is infeasible to run an experiment for every actioncontext pair. In such cases, one would ideally like to predict the outcome for every pair while only needing outcome data for a small _subset_ of pairs. This task, which we label "causal imputation", is a generalization of the causal transportability problem. To address this challenge, we extend the recently introduced _synthetic interventions_ (SI) estimator to handle more general data sparsity patterns. We prove that, under a latent factor model, our estimator provides valid estimates for the causal imputation task. We motivate this model by establishing a connection to the linear structural causal model literature. Finally, we consider the prominent CMAP dataset in predicting the effects of compounds on gene expression across cell types. We find that our estimator outperforms standard baselines, thus confirming its utility in biological applications.more » « less

Inferring graph structure from observations on the nodes is an important and popular network science task. Departing from the more common inference of a single graph, we study the problem of jointly inferring multiple graphs from the observation of signals at their nodes (graph signals), which are assumed to be stationary in the sought graphs. Graph stationarity implies that the mapping between the covariance of the signals and the sparse matrix representing the underlying graph is given by a matrix polynomial. A prominent example is that of Markov random fields, where the inverse of the covariance yields the sparse matrix of interest. From a modeling perspective, stationary graph signals can be used to model linear network processes evolving on a set of (not necessarily known) networks. Leveraging that matrix polynomials commute, a convex optimization method along with sufficient conditions that guarantee the recovery of the true graphs are provided when perfect covariance information is available. Particularly important from an empirical viewpoint, we provide highprobability bounds on the recovery error as a function of the number of signals observed and other key problem parameters. Numerical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method with perfect covariance information as well as its robustness in the noisy regime.more » « less

null (Ed.)Abstract Directed acyclic graphical models are widely used to represent complex causal systems. Since the basic task of learning such a model from data is NPhard, a standard approach is greedy search over the space of directed acyclic graphs or Markov equivalence classes of directed acyclic graphs. As the space of directed acyclic graphs on p nodes and the associated space of Markov equivalence classes are both much larger than the space of permutations, it is desirable to consider permutationbased greedy searches. Here, we provide the first consistency guarantees, both uniform and highdimensional, of a greedy permutationbased search. This search corresponds to a simplexlike algorithm operating over the edgegraph of a subpolytope of the permutohedron, called a directed acyclic graph associahedron. Every vertex in this polytope is associated with a directed acyclic graph, and hence with a collection of permutations that are consistent with the directed acyclic graph ordering. A walk is performed on the edges of the polytope maximizing the sparsity of the associated directed acyclic graphs. We show via simulated and real data that this permutation search is competitive with current approaches.more » « less