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  1. Abstract

    The mean free path of ionizing photons,λmfp, is a critical parameter for modeling the intergalactic medium (IGM) both during and after reionization. We present direct measurements ofλmfpfrom QSO spectra over the redshift range 5 <z< 6, including the first measurements atz≃ 5.3 and 5.6. Our sample includes data from the XQR-30 VLT large program, as well as new Keck/ESI observations of QSOs nearz∼ 5.5, for which we also acquire new [Cii] 158μm redshifts with ALMA. By measuring the Lyman continuum transmission profile in stacked QSO spectra, we findλmfp=9.331.80+2.06,5.401.40+1.47,3.311.34+2.74, and0.810.48+0.73pMpc atz= 5.08, 5.31, 5.65, and 5.93, respectively. Our results demonstrate thatλmfpincreases steadily and rapidly with time over 5 <z< 6. Notably, we find thatλmfpdeviates significantly from predictions based on a fully ionized and relaxed IGM as late asz= 5.3. By comparing our results to model predictions and indirectλmfpconstraints based on IGM Lyαopacity, we find that the evolution ofλmfpis consistent with scenarios wherein the IGM is still undergoing reionization and/or retains large fluctuations in the ionizing UV background well below redshift 6.

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  2. Abstract We report the detection of an ionized gas outflow from an X-ray active galactic nucleus hosted in a massive quiescent galaxy in a protocluster at z = 3.09 (J221737.29+001823.4). It is a type-2 QSO with broad ( W 80 > 1000 km s −1 ) and strong ( log ( L [ OIII ] /erg s −1 ) ≈ 43.4) [O iii ] λ λ 4959,5007 emission lines detected by slit spectroscopy in three-position angles using Multi-Object Infra-Red Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru telescope and the Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE) on the Keck-I telescope. In the all slit directions, [O iii ] emission is extended to ∼15 physical kpc and indicates a powerful outflow spreading over the host galaxy. The inferred ionized gas mass outflow rate is 22 ± 3 M ⊙ yr −1 . Although it is a radio source, according to the line diagnostics using H β , [O ii ], and [O iii ], photoionization by the central QSO is likely the dominant ionization mechanism rather than shocks caused by radio jets. On the other hand, the spectral energy distribution of the host galaxy is well characterized as a quiescent galaxy that has shut down star formation several hundred Myr ago. Our results suggest a scenario that QSOs are powered after the shutdown of the star formation and help complete the quenching of massive quiescent galaxies at high redshift. 
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  3. Abstract

    We report the detection of the CO(12–11) line emission toward G09-83808 (or H-ATLAS J090045.4+004125), a strongly-lensed submillimeter galaxy at z = 6.02, with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations. Combining previously detected [O iii] 88 μm, [N ii] 205 μm, and dust continuum at 0.6 mm and 1.5 mm, we investigate the physical properties of the multi-phase interstellar medium in G09-83808. A source-plane reconstruction reveals that the region of the CO(12–11) emission is compact ($R_\mathrm{{e, CO}}=0.49^{+0.29}_{-0.19}\:\mbox{kpc}$) and roughly coincides with that of the dust continuum. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer modeling of CO spectral-line energy distribution reveals that most of the CO(12–11) emission comes from a warm (kinetic temperature of Tkin = 320 ± 170 K) and dense [log (nH2/cm−3) = 5.4 ± 0.6] gas, indicating that the warm and dense molecular gas is concentrated in the central 0.5 kpc region. The luminosity ratio in G09-83808 is estimated to be LCO(12-11)/LCO(6-5) = 1.1 ± 0.2. The high ratio is consistent with those in local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and 6 < z < 7 quasars, the fact of which implies that G09-83808 would be a good target to explore dust-obscured AGNs in the epoch of reionization. In the reconstructed [O iii] 88 μm and [N ii] 205 μm cubes, we also find that a monotonic velocity gradient is extending over the central starburst region by a factor of 2 and that star-forming sub-components exist. High-resolution observations of bright [C ii] 158 μm line emissions will enable us to characterize the kinematics of a possible rotating disk and the nature of the sub-components.

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  4. The detection of starlight from the host galaxies of quasars during the reionization epoch (z > 6) has been elusive, even with deep HST observations1,2. The current highest redshift quasar host detected3, at z = 4.5, required the magnifying effect of a foreground lensing galaxy. Low-luminosity quasars4,5,6 from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP)7 mitigate the challenge of detecting their underlying, previously-undetected host galaxies. Here we report rest-frame optical images and spectroscopy of two HSC-SSP quasars at z > 6 with JWST. Using NIRCam imaging at 3.6μm and 1.5μm and subtracting the light from the unresolved quasars, we find that the host galaxies are massive (stellar masses of 13 × and 3.4 × 1010 M⊙, respectively), compact, and disk-like. NIRSpec medium-resolution spectroscopy shows stellar absorption lines in the more massive quasar, confirming the detection of the host. Velocity-broadened gas in the vicinity of these quasars enables measurements of their black hole masses (1.4 × 109 and 2.0 × 108 M⊙, respectively). Their location in the black hole mass - stellar mass plane is consistent with the distribution at low redshift, suggesting that the relation between black holes and their host galaxies was already in place less than a billion years after the Big Bang. 
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  5. Abstract

    We present observations of [N ii] 205 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and dust emission in a strongly-lensed, submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 6.0, G09.83808, with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Both [N ii] and [O iii] line emissions are detected at >12σ in the ${0{^{\prime \prime}_{.}}8}$-resolution maps. Lens modeling indicates that the spatial distribution of the dust continuum emission is well characterized by a compact disk with an effective radius of 0.64 ± 0.02 kpc and a high infrared surface brightness of ΣIR = (1.8 ± 0.3) × 1012 L⊙ kpc−2. This result supports that G09.83808 is the progenitor of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 4, where the majority of its stars are expected to be formed through a strong and short burst of star formation. G09.83808 and other lensed SMGs show a decreasing trend in the [N ii] line to infrared luminosity ratio with increasing continuum flux density ratio between 63 and 158 μm, as seen in local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). The decreasing trend can be reproduced by photoionization models with increasing ionization parameters. Furthermore, by combining the [N ii]/[O iii] luminosity ratio with far-infrared continuum flux density ratio in G09.83808, we infer that the gas phase metallicity is already Z ≈ 0.5–0.7 Z⊙. G09.83808 is likely one of the earliest galaxies that has been chemically enriched at the end of reionization.

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  6. Abstract We report a massive quiescent galaxy at z spec = 3.0922 − 0.004 + 0.008 spectroscopically confirmed at a protocluster in the SSA22 field by detecting the Balmer and Ca ii absorption features with the multi-object spectrometer for infrared exploration on the Keck I telescope. This is the most distant quiescent galaxy confirmed in a protocluster to date. We fit the optical to mid-infrared photometry and spectrum simultaneously with spectral energy distribution (SED) models of parametric and nonparametric star formation histories (SFHs). Both models fit the observed SED well and confirm that this object is a massive quiescent galaxy with a stellar mass of log ( M ⋆ / M ⊙ ) = 11.26 − 0.04 + 0.03 and 11.54 − 0.00 + 0.03 , and a star formation rate of SFR/ M ⊙ yr −1 < 0.3 and = 0.01 − 0.01 + 0.03 for parametric and nonparametric models, respectively. The SFH from the former modeling is described as an instantaneous starburst whereas that of the latter modeling is longer-lived, but both models agree with a sudden quenching of the star formation at ∼0.6 Gyr ago. This massive quiescent galaxy is confirmed in an extremely dense group of galaxies predicted as a progenitor of a brightest cluster galaxy formed via multiple mergers in cosmological numerical simulations. We discover three new plausible [O iii ] λ 5007 emitters at 3.0791 ≤ z spec ≤ 3.0833 serendipitously detected around the target. Two of them just between the target and its nearest massive galaxy are possible evidence of their interactions. They suggest the future great size and stellar mass evolution of this massive quiescent galaxy via mergers. 
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    We report the discovery of a triply imaged active galactic nucleus (AGN), lensed by the galaxy cluster MACS J0035.4−2015 (zd = 0.352). The object is detected in Hubble Space Telescope imaging taken for the RELICS program. It appears to have a quasi-stellar nucleus consistent with a point-source, with a de-magnified radius of re ≲ 100 pc. The object is spectroscopically confirmed to be an AGN at zspec = 2.063 ± 0.005 showing broad rest-frame UV emission lines, and detected in both X-ray observations with Chandra and in ALCS ALMA band 6 (1.2 mm) imaging. It has a relatively faint rest-frame UV luminosity for a quasar-like object, MUV, 1450 = −19.7 ± 0.2. The object adds to just a few quasars or other X-ray sources known to be multiply lensed by a galaxy cluster. Some diffuse emission from the host galaxy is faintly seen around the nucleus, and there is a faint object nearby sharing the same multiple-imaging symmetry and geometric redshift, possibly an interacting galaxy or a star-forming knot in the host. We present an accompanying lens model, calculate the magnifications and time delays, and infer the physical properties of the source. We find the rest-frame UV continuum and emission lines to be dominated by the AGN, and the optical emission to be dominated by the host galaxy of modest stellar mass $M_{\star }\simeq 10^{9.2}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ . We also observe some variation in the AGN emission with time, which may suggest that the AGN used to be more active. This object adds a low-redshift counterpart to several relatively faint AGN recently uncovered at high redshifts with HST and JWST.

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  8. Abstract

    We present CO J = 4–3 line and 3 mm dust continuum observations of a 100 kpc-scale filamentary Lyα nebula (SSA22 LAB18) at z = 3.1 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We detected the CO J = 4–3 line at a systemic zCO = 3.093 ± 0.001 at 11 σ from one of the ALMA continuum sources associated with the Lyα filament. We estimated the CO J = 4–3 luminosity of $L^{\prime }_{\rm {CO(4-3)}}=(2.3 \pm 0.2)\times 10^{9}\:$K km s−1 pc2 for this CO source, which is one order of magnitude smaller than those of typical z > 1 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) of similar far-infrared luminosity LIR ∼ 1012 L⊙. We derived a molecular gas mass of $M_{\rm {gas}} = (4.4^{+0.9}_{-0.6}) \times 10^{9}\, M_{{\odot }}$ and a star-formation rate of SFR =270 ± 160 M⊙ yr−1. We also estimated a gas depletion time of τdep = 17 ± 10 Myr, which is shorter than those of typical DSFGs. It is suggested that this source is in the transition phase from DSFG to a gas-poor, early-type galaxy. From ALMA to Herschel multi-band dust continuum observations, we measured a dust emissivity index β = 2.3 ± 0.2, which is similar to those of local gas-poor, early-type galaxies. From recent laboratory experiments, the specific chemical compositions needed to reproduce such a high β for interstellar dust at the submillimeter wavelengths. ALMA CO and multi-band dust continuum observations can constrain the evolutionary stage of high-redshift galaxies through τdep and β, and thus we can investigate the chemical composition of dust even in the early Universe.

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  9. Abstract

    We present new ALMA observations and physical properties of a Lyman break galaxy at z = 7.15. Our target, B14-65666, has a bright ultra-violet (UV) absolute magnitude, MUV ≈ −22.4, and has been spectroscopically identified in Lyα with a small rest-frame equivalent width of ≈4 Å. A previous Hubble Space TElescope (HST) image has shown that the target is composed of two spatially separated clumps in the rest-frame UV. With ALMA, we have newly detected spatially resolved [O iii] 88 μm, [C ii] 158 μm, and their underlying dust continuum emission. In the whole system of B14-65666, the [O iii] and [C ii] lines have consistent redshifts of 7.1520 ± 0.0003, and the [O iii] luminosity, (34.4 ± 4.1) × 108 L⊙, is about three times higher than the [C ii] luminosity, (11.0 ± 1.4) × 108 L⊙. With our two continuum flux densities, the dust temperature is constrained to be Td ≈ 50–60 K under the assumption of a dust emissivity index of βd = 2.0–1.5, leading to a large total infrared luminosity of LTIR ≈ 1 × 1012 L⊙. Owing to our high spatial resolution data, we show that the [O iii] and [C ii] emission can be spatially decomposed into two clumps associated with the two rest-frame UV clumps whose spectra are kinematically separated by ≈200 km s−1. We also find these two clumps have comparable UV, infrared, [O iii], and [C ii] luminosities. Based on these results, we argue that B14-65666 is a starburst galaxy induced by a major merger. The merger interpretation is also supported by the large specific star formation rate (defined as the star formation rate per unit stellar mass), sSFR $= 260^{+119}_{-57}\:$Gyr−1, inferred from our SED fitting. Probably, a strong UV radiation field caused by intense star formation contributes to its high dust temperature and the [O iii]-to-[C ii] luminosity ratio.

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