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  1. Peters, S. A. ; Zapata-Cardona, L. ; Bonafini, F. ; Fan, A. (Ed.)
    Attitudes play an important role in students’ academic achievement and retention, yet we lack quality attitude measurement instruments in the new field of data science. This paper explains the process of creating Expectancy Value Theory-based instruments for introductory, college-level data science courses, including construct development, item creation, and refinement involving content experts. The family of instruments consist of surveys measuring student attitudes, instructor attitudes, and instructor and course characteristics. These instruments will enable data science education researchers to evaluate pedagogical innovations, create course assessments, and measure instructional effectiveness relating to student attitudes. We also present plans for pilot data collection and analyses to verify the categorization of items to constructs, as well as ways in which faculty who teach introductory data science courses can be involved.

     
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  2. Peters, S. A. ; Zapata-Cardona, L. ; Bonafini, F. ; Fan, A. (Ed.)
    The Student Survey of Motivational Attitudes toward Statistics is a new instrument designed to measure affective outcomes in statistics education. This instrument is grounded in the established Expectancy-Value Theory of motivation and is being developed using a rigorous process. This paper provides an overview of the four pilot studies that have been conducted during the survey development process. Additionally, a description of the methods used for analyzing the data and the way the results are used to holistically make decisions about revisions to the survey is included. Brief confirmatory factor analysis results are included from two pilot studies to demonstrate that substantial progress has been made on the development. Once finalized (Spring 2023), the survey will be made freely available.

     
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  3. Peters, S. A. ; Zapata-Cardona, L. ; Bonafini, F. ; Fan, A. (Ed.)
    The Motivational Attitudes in Statistics and Data Science Education Research group is developing a family of validated instruments: two instruments assessing students’ attitudes toward statistics or data science, two instruments assessing instructors’ attitudes toward teaching statistics or data science, and two sets of inventories to measure the learning environment in which the students and instructor interact. The Environment Inventories measure the institutional structures, course characteristics, and enacted classroom behaviors of both the students and instructors, all of which interact with the student and instructor background. This paper will discuss our proposed theoretical framework for the learning environment and its development.

     
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  4. Peters, S. A. ; Zapata-Cardona, L. ; Bonafini, F. ; Fan, A. (Ed.)
    Attitudes matter in statistics and data science education, but previous instruments have been limited in scope, resulting in many unanswered questions. This paper discusses the Surveys of Motivational Attitudes toward Statistics and Data Science, a family of instruments designed to provide a broad understanding of university-level student and instructor attitudes as well as learning environment characteristics. Based on Expectancy Value Theory, a meta-model explains the interrelationships among the instruments, and an iterative design process is followed for survey development. Psychometric results from data collections using instruments developed thus far are presented. This is the first time a cohesive, synergistic set of instruments has been designed to work together to give a broader understanding of the state of statistics and data science education.

     
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  5. The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS) is a widely used family of instruments for measuring attitude constructs in statistics education. Since the development of the SATS instruments, there has been an evolution in the understanding of validity in the field of educational measurement emphasizing validation as an on-going process. While a 2012 review of statistics education attitude instruments noted that the SATS family had the most validity evidence, two types of challenges to the use of these instruments have emerged: challenges to the interpretations of scale scores and challenges using the SATS instruments in populations other than undergraduate students enrolled in introductory statistics courses. A synthesis of the literature and empirical results are used to document these challenges. 
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  6. Abstract Background

    The Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument A (STEBI-A; Riggs & Enochs, 1990 in Science Education, 74(6), 625-637) has been the dominant measurement tool of in-service science teacher self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for nearly 30 years. However, concerns about certain aspects of the STEBI-A have arisen, including the wording, validity, reliability, and dimensionality. In the present study, we revised the STEBI-A by addressing many concerns research has identified, and developed a new instrument called the T-STEM Science Scale. The T-STEM Science Scale was reviewed by expert panels and piloted first before it was administered to 727 elementary and secondary science teachers. The combination of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) approaches were used to validate the instrument. Multidimensional Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were run.

    Results

    Based on the results, the negatively worded items were found to be problematic and thus removed from the instrument. We also found that the three-dimensional model fit our data the best, in line with our theoretical conceptualization. Based on the literature review and analysis, although the personal science teaching efficacy beliefs (PTSEB) construct remained intact, the original outcome expectancy construct was renamed science teacher responsibility for learning outcomes beliefs (STRLOB) and was divided into two dimensions, above- and below-average student interest or performance. The T-STEM Science Scale had satisfactory reliability values as well.

    Conclusions

    Through the development and validation of the T-STEM Science Scale, we have addressed some critical concerns emergent from prior research concerning the STEBI-A. Psychometrically, the refinement of the wording, item removal, and the separation into three constructs have resulted in better reliability values compared to STEBI-A. While two distinct theoretical foundations are now used to explain the constructs of the new T-STEM instrument, prior literature and our empirical results note the important interrelationship of these constructs. The preservation of these constructs preserves a bridge, though imperfect, to the large body of legacy research using the STEBI-A.

     
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