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  1. Abstract

    Climate change is resulting in increasing ocean temperatures and salinity variability, particularly in estuarine environments. Tolerance of temperature and salinity change interact and thus may impact organismal resilience. Populations can respond to multiple stressors in the short‐term (i.e., plasticity) or over longer timescales (i.e., adaptation). However, little is known about the short‐ or long‐term effects of elevated temperature on the tolerance of acute temperature and salinity changes. Here, we characterized the response of the near‐shore and estuarine copepod,Acartia tonsa, to temperature and salinity stress. Copepods originated from one of two sets of replicated >40 generation‐old temperature‐adapted lines: ambient (AM, 18°C) and ocean warming (OW, 22°C). Copepods from these lines were subjected to one and three generations at the reciprocal temperature. Copepods from all treatments were then assessed for differences in acute temperature and salinity tolerance. Development (one generation), three generations, and >40 generations of warming increased thermal tolerance compared to Ambient conditions, with development in OW resulting in equal thermal tolerance to three and >40 generations of OW. Strikingly, developmental OW and >40 generations of OW had no effect on low salinity tolerance relative to ambient. By contrast, when environmental salinity was reduced first, copepods had lower thermal tolerances. These results highlight the critical role for plasticity in the copepod climate response and suggest that salinity variability may reduce copepod tolerance to subsequent warming.

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  2. CRK adaptor proteins are important for signal transduction mechanisms driving cell proliferation and positioning during vertebrate central nervous system development. Zebrafish lacking both CRK family members exhibit small, disorganized retinas with 50% penetrance. The goal of this study was to determine whether another adaptor protein might functionally compensate for the loss of CRK adaptors. Expression patterns in developing zebrafish, and bioinformatic analyses of the motifs recognized by their SH2 and SH3 domains, suggest NCK adaptors are well‐positioned to compensate for loss of CRK adaptors. In support of this hypothesis, proteomic analyses found CRK and NCK adaptors share overlapping interacting partners including known regulators of cell adhesion and migration, suggesting their functional intersection in neurodevelopment.

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  3. Abstract

    Group I alkoxides are highly active precatalysts in the heterodehydrocoupling of silanes and amines to afford aminosilane products. The broadly soluble and commercially available KOtAmyl was utilized as the benchmark precatalyst for this transformation. Challenging substrates such as anilines were found to readily couple primary, secondary, and tertiary silanes in high conversions (>90 %) after only 2 h at 40 °C. Traditionally challenging silanes such as Ph3SiH were also easily coupled to simple primary and secondary amines under mild conditions, with reactivity that rivals many rare earth and transition‐metal catalysts for this transformation. Preliminary evidence suggests the formation of hypercoordinated intermediates, but radicals were detected under catalytic conditions, indicating a mechanism that is rare for Si−N bond formation.

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  4. Abstract

    Centuries of human development have altered the connectivity of rivers, adversely impacting ecosystems and the services they provide. Significant investments in natural resource projects are made annually with the goal of restoring function to degraded rivers and floodplains and protecting freshwater resources. Yet restoration projects often fall short of their objectives, in part due to the lack of systems‐based strategic planning. To evaluate channel‐floodplain (dis)connectivity and erosion/incision hazard at the basin scale, we calculate Specific Stream Power (SSP), an estimate of the energy of a river, using a topographically based, low‐complexity hydraulic model. Other basin‐wide SSP modeling approaches neglect reach‐specific geometric information embedded in Digital Elevation Models. Our approach leverages this information to generate reach‐specific SSP‐flow curves. We extract measures from these curves that describe (dis)connected floodwater storage capacity and erosion hazard at individual design storm flood stages and demonstrate how these measures may be used to identify watershed‐scale patterns in connectivity. We show proof‐of‐concept using 25 reaches in the Mad River watershed in central Vermont and demonstrate that the SSP results have acceptable agreement with a well‐calibrated process‐based model (2D Hydraulic Engineering Center's River Analysis System) across a broad range of design events. While systems‐based planning of regional restoration and conservation activities has been limited, largely due to computational and human resource requirements, measures derived from low‐complexity models can provide an overview of reach‐scale conditions at the regional level and aid planners in identifying areas for further restoration and/or conservation assessments.

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  5. Abstract

    Rock glaciers are common in alpine landscapes, but their evolution over time and their significance as agents of debris transport are not well‐understood. Here, we assess the movement of an ice‐cemented rock glacier over a range of timescales using GPS surveying, satellite‐based radar, and cosmogenic10Be surface‐exposure dating. GPS and InSAR measurements indicate that the rock glacier moved at an average rate of ∼10 cm yr−1in recent years. Sampled boulders on the rock glacier have cosmogenic surface‐exposure ages from 1.2 to 10 ka, indicating that they have been exposed since the beginning of the Holocene. Exposure ages increase linearly with distance downslope, suggesting a slower long‐term mean surface velocity of 3 ± 0.3 cm yr−1. Our findings suggest that the behavior of this rock glacier may be dominated by episodes of dormancy punctuated by intervals of relatively rapid movement over both short and long timescales. Our findings also show that the volume of the rock glacier corresponds to ∼10 m of material stripped from the headwall during the Holocene. These are the first cosmogenic surface‐exposure ages to constrain movement of a North American rock glacier, and together with the GPS and satellite radar measurements, they reveal that rock glaciers are effective geomorphic agents with dynamic multi‐millennial histories.

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  6. Abstract

    Variation in fitness components can be linked in some cases to variation in key traits. Metric traits that lie at the intersection of development, defense, and ecological interactions may be expected to experience environmental selection, informing our understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes. Here, we use quantitative genetic and population genomic methods to investigate disease dynamics in hybrid and non‐hybrid populations. We focus our investigation on morphological and ecophysiological traits which inform our understanding of physiology, growth, and defense against a pathogen. In particular, we investigate stomata, microscopic pores on the surface of a leaf that regulate gas exchange during photosynthesis and are sites of entry for various plant pathogens. Stomatal patterning traits were highly predictive of disease risk. Admixture mapping identified a polygenic basis of disease resistance. Candidate genes for stomatal and disease resistance map to the same genomic regions and experienced positive selection. Genes with functions to guard cell homeostasis, the plant immune system, components of constitutive defenses, and growth‐related transcription factors were identified. Our results indicate positive selection acted on candidate genes for stomatal patterning and disease resistance, potentially acting in concert to structure their variation in naturally formed backcrossing hybrid populations.

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  7. Abstract

    Human stroke serum (HSS) has been shown to impair cerebrovascular function, likely by factors released into the circulation after ischemia. 20 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have demonstrated anti‐inflammatory properties, with evidence that they decrease pathologic markers of ischemic severity. Whether GNPs affect cerebrovascular function, and potentially protect against the damaging effects of HSS on the cerebral circulation remains unclear. HSS obtained 24 h poststroke was perfused through the lumen of isolated and pressurized third‐order posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) from male Wistar rats with and without GNPs (~2 × 109GNP/ml), or GNPs in vehicle, in an arteriograph chamber (n = 8/group). All vessels were myogenically reactive ≥60 mmHg intravascular pressure; however, vessels containing GNPs had significantly less myogenic tone. GNPs increased vasoreactivity to small and intermediate conductance calcium activated potassium channel activation via NS309; however, reduced vasoconstriction to nitric oxide synthase inhibition. Hydraulic conductivity and transvascular filtration, were decreased by GNPs, suggesting a protective effect on the blood–brain barrier. The stress–strain curves of PCAs exposed to GNPs were shifted leftward, indicating increased vessel stiffness. This study provides the first evidence that GNPs affect the structure and function of the cerebrovasculature, which may be important for their development and use in biomedical applications.

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  8. Abstract

    Genomic data are increasingly being integrated into macroecological forecasting, offering an evolutionary perspective that has been largely missing from global change biogeography. Genomic offset, which quantifies the disruption of genotype–environment associations under environmental change, allows for the incorporation of intraspecific climate‐associated genomic differentiation into forecasts of habitat suitability. Gradient Forest (GF) is a commonly used approach to estimate genomic offset; however, major hurdles in the application of GF‐derived genomic offsets are (1) an inability to interpret their absolute magnitude in an ecologically meaningful way and (2) uncertainty in how their implications compare with those of species‐level approaches like Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). Here, we assess the climate change vulnerability of red spruce (Picea rubens), a cool‐temperate tree species endemic to eastern North America, using both ENMs and GF modeling of genomic variation along climatic gradients. To gain better insights into climate change risks, we derive and apply two new threshold‐based genomic offset metrics—Donor and Recipient Importance—that quantify the transferability of propagules between donor populations and recipient localities while minimizing disruption of genotype–environment associations. We also propose and test a method for scaling genomic offsets relative to contemporary genomic variation across the landscape. In three common gardens, we found a significant negative relationship between (scaled) genomic offsets and red spruce growth and higher explanatory power for scaled offsets than climate transfer distances. However, the garden results also revealed the potential effects of spatial extrapolation and neutral genomic differentiation that can compromise the degree to which genomic offsets represent maladaptation and highlight the necessity of using common garden data to evaluate offset‐based predictions. ENMs and our novel genomic offset metrics forecasted drastic northward range shifts in suitable habitats. Combining inferences from our offset‐based metrics, we show that a northward shift mainly will be required for populations in the central and northern parts of red spruce's current range, whereas southern populations might persist in situ due to climate‐associated variation with less offset under future climate. These new genomic offset metrics thus yield refined, region‐specific prognoses for local persistence and show how management could be improved by considering assisted migration.

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  9. Abstract

    Hydrophosphination activity has been solicited from the parent and decamethyl zirconocene dichloride compounds, Cp2ZrCl2and Cp*2ZrCl2. Given recent reports of photocatalytic hydrophosphination, these compounds were irradiated in the near ultraviolet (UV) as precatalysts resulting in the successful hydrophosphination of styrene substrates and activated alkenes. Irradiation appears to induce homolysis of the Cp or Cp* ligand, resulting in radical hydrophosphination. Successful detection of this radical reactivity was achieved by monitoring for EPR signals within situirradiation, a methodology proving to be general for the determination of radical versus closed‐shell reactivity in transition‐metal photocatalysis.

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