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  1. Abstract

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are important cosmological tools, probes of binary star evolution, and contributors to cosmic metal enrichment; yet, a definitive understanding of the binary star systems that produce them remains elusive. Of particular interest is the identity of the mass-donor companion to the exploding carbon–oxygen white dwarf (CO WD). In this work, we present early-time (first observation within 10 days post-explosion) radio observations of six nearby (within 40 Mpc) SNe Ia taken by the Jansky Very Large Array, which are used to constrain the presence of synchrotron emission from the interaction between ejecta and circumstellar material (CSM). The two motivations for these early-time observations are: (1) to constrain the presence of low-density winds and (2) to provide an additional avenue of investigation for those SNe Ia observed to have early-time optical/UV excesses that may be due to CSM interaction. We detect no radio emission from any of our targets. Toward our first aim, these non-detections further increase the sample of SNe Ia that rule out winds from symbiotic binaries and strongly accreting white dwarfs. and discuss the dependence on underlying model assumptions and how our observations represent a large increase in the sample of SNe Ia with low-density wind constraints. For the second aim, we present a radiation hydrodynamics simulation to explore radio emission from an SN Ia interacting with a compact shell of CSM, and find that relativistic electrons cannot survive to produce radio emission despite the rapid expansion of the shocked shell after shock breakout. The effects of model assumptions are discussed for both the wind and compact shell conclusions.

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  2. Abstract

    We present a JWST mid-infrared (MIR) spectrum of the underluminous Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) 2022xkq, obtained with the medium-resolution spectrometer on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) ∼130 days post-explosion. We identify the first MIR lines beyond 14μm in SN Ia observations. We find features unique to underluminous SNe Ia, including the following: isolated emission of stable Ni, strong blends of [Tiii], and large ratios of singly ionized to doubly ionized species in both [Ar] and [Co]. Comparisons to normal-luminosity SNe Ia spectra at similar phases show a tentative trend between the width of the [Coiii] 11.888μm feature and the SN light-curve shape. Using non-LTE-multi-dimensional radiation hydro simulations and the observed electron capture elements, we constrain the mass of the exploding WD. The best-fitting model shows that SN 2022xkq is consistent with an off-center delayed-detonation explosion of a near-Chandrasekhar mass WD (MWD≈1.37M) of high central density (ρc≥ 2.0 × 109g cm−3) seen equator-on, which producedM(56Ni) =0.324MandM(58Ni) ≥0.06M. The observed line widths are consistent with the overall abundance distribution; and the narrow stable Ni lines indicate little to no mixing in the central regions, favoring central ignition of subsonic carbon burning followed by an off-center deflagration-to-detonation transition beginning at a single point. Additional observations may further constrain the physics revealing the presence of additional species including Cr and Mn. Our work demonstrates the power of using the full coverage of MIRI in combination with detailed modeling to elucidate the physics of SNe Ia at a level not previously possible.

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  3. Abstract

    We present photometric and spectroscopic data of SN 2018lab, a low-luminosity Type IIP supernova (LLSN) with aV-band peak luminosity of −15.1 ± 0.1 mag. SN 2018lab was discovered by the Distance Less Than 40 Mpc (DLT40) SN survey only 0.73 days post-explosion, as determined by observations from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). TESS observations of SN 2018lab yield a densely sampled, fast-rising, early-time light curve likely powered by ejecta–circumstellar medium (CSM) interaction. The blueshifted, broadened flash feature in the earliest spectra (<2 days) of SN 2018lab provides further evidence for ejecta–CSM interaction. The early emission features in the spectra of SN 2018lab are well described by models of a red supergiant progenitor with an extended envelope and a close-in CSM. As one of the few LLSNe with observed flash features, SN 2018lab highlights the need for more early spectra to explain the diversity of the flash feature morphology of Type II SNe.

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  4. Abstract

    We present a sample of Type Icn supernovae (SNe Icn), a newly discovered class of transients characterized by their interaction with H- and He-poor circumstellar material (CSM). This sample is the largest collection of SNe Icn to date and includes observations of two published objects (SN 2019hgp and SN 2021csp) and two objects not yet published in the literature (SN 2019jc and SN 2021ckj). The SNe Icn display a range of peak luminosities, rise times, and decline rates, as well as diverse late-time spectral features. To investigate their explosion and progenitor properties, we fit their bolometric light curves to a semianalytical model consisting of luminosity inputs from circumstellar interaction and radioactive decay of56Ni. We infer low ejecta masses (≲2M) and56Ni masses (≲0.04M) from the light curves, suggesting that normal stripped-envelope supernova (SESN) explosions within a dense CSM cannot be the underlying mechanism powering SNe Icn. Additionally, we find that an estimate of the star formation rate density at the location of SN 2019jc lies at the lower end of a distribution of SESNe, in conflict with a massive star progenitor of this object. Based on its estimated ejecta mass,56Ni mass, and explosion site properties, we suggest a low-mass, ultra-stripped star as the progenitor of SN 2019jc. For other SNe Icn, we suggest that a Wolf–Rayet star progenitor may better explain their observed properties. This study demonstrates that multiple progenitor channels may produce SNe Icn and other interaction-powered transients.

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  5. Abstract

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the nearby (D≈ 28 Mpc) interacting supernova (SN) 2019esa, discovered within hours of explosion and serendipitously observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Early, high-cadence light curves from both TESS and the DLT40 survey tightly constrain the time of explosion, and show a 30 day rise to maximum light followed by a near-constant linear decline in luminosity. Optical spectroscopy over the first 40 days revealed a reddened object with narrow Balmer emission lines seen in Type IIn SNe. The slow rise to maximum in the optical light curve combined with the lack of broad Hαemission suggest the presence of very optically thick and close circumstellar material (CSM) that quickly decelerated the SN ejecta. This CSM was likely created from a massive star progenitor with anṀ∼ 0.2Myr−1lost in a previous eruptive episode 3–4 yr before eruption, similar to giant eruptions of luminous blue variable stars. At late times, strong intermediate-width Caii, Fei, and Feiilines are seen in the optical spectra, identical to those seen in the superluminous interacting SN 2006gy. The strong CSM interaction masks the underlying explosion mechanism in SN 2019esa, but the combination of the luminosity, strength of the Hαlines, and mass-loss rate of the progenitor seem to be inconsistent with a Type Ia CSM model and instead point to a core-collapse origin.

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  6. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The origin of the diverse light-curve shapes of Type II supernovae (SNe), and whether they come from similar or distinct progenitors, has been actively discussed for decades. Here, we report spectropolarimetry of two fast declining Type II (Type IIL) SNe: SN 2013ej and SN 2017ahn. SN 2013ej exhibited high continuum polarization from very soon after the explosion to the radioactive tail phase with time-variable polarization angles. The origin of this polarimetric behaviour can be interpreted as the combination of two different aspherical structures, namely an aspherical interaction of the SN ejecta with circumstellar matter (CSM) and an inherently aspherical explosion. Aspherical explosions are a common feature of slowly declining Type II (Type IIP) SNe. By contrast, SN 2017ahn showed low polarization not only in the photospheric phase but also in the radioactive tail phase. This low polarization in the tail phase, which has never before been observed in other Type IIP/L SNe, suggests that the explosion of SN 2017ahn was nearly spherical. These observations imply that Type IIL SNe have, at least, two different origins: they result from stars that have different explosion properties and/or different mass-loss processes. This fact might indicate that 13ej-like Type IIL SNe originate from a similar progenitor to those of Type IIP SNe accompanied by an aspherical CSM interaction, while 17ahn-like Type IIL SNe come from a more massive progenitor with less hydrogen in its envelope. 
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  7. Abstract We present optical and near-infrared (NIR, Y - , J - , H- band) observations of 42 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the untargeted intermediate Palomar Transient Factory survey. This new data set covers a broad range of redshifts and host galaxy stellar masses, compared to previous SN Ia efforts in the NIR. We construct a sample, using also literature data at optical and NIR wavelengths, to examine claimed correlations between the host stellar masses and the Hubble diagram residuals. The SN magnitudes are corrected for host galaxy extinction using either a global total-to-selective extinction ratio, R V = 2.0, for all SNe, or a best-fit R V for each SN individually. Unlike previous studies that were based on a narrower range in host stellar mass, we do not find evidence for a “mass step,” between the color- and stretch-corrected peak J and H magnitudes for galaxies below and above log ( M * / M ⊙ ) = 10 . However, the mass step remains significant (3 σ ) at optical wavelengths ( g , r , i ) when using a global R V , but vanishes when each SN is corrected using their individual best-fit R V . Our study confirms the benefits of the NIR SN Ia distance estimates, as these are largely exempted from the empirical corrections dominating the systematic uncertainties in the optical. 
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  8. Abstract

    Rapidly evolving transients, or objects that rise and fade in brightness on timescales two to three times shorter than those of typical Type Ia or Type II supernovae (SNe), have uncertain progenitor systems and powering mechanisms. Recent studies have noted similarities between rapidly evolving transients and Type Ibn SNe, which are powered by ejecta interacting with He-rich circumstellar material (CSM). In this work we present multiband photometric and spectroscopic observations from Las Cumbres Observatory and Swift of four fast-evolving Type Ibn SNe. We compare these observations with those of rapidly evolving transients identified in the literature. We discuss several common characteristics between these two samples, including their light curve and color evolution as well as their spectral features. To investigate a common powering mechanism we construct a grid of analytical model light curves with luminosity inputs from CSM interaction as well as56Ni radioactive decay. We find that models with ejecta masses of ≈1–3M, CSM masses of ≈0.2–1M, and CSM radii of ≈20–65 au can explain the diversity of peak luminosities, rise times, and decline rates observed in Type Ibn SNe and rapidly evolving transients. This suggests that a common progenitor system—the core collapse of a high-mass star within a dense CSM shell—can reproduce the light curves of even the most luminous and fast-evolving objects, such as AT 2018cow. This work is one of the first to reproduce the light curves of both SNe Ibn and other rapidly evolving transients with a single model.

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  9. Abstract

    We present a JWST/MIRI low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic observation of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2021aefx at +323 days past rest-frameB-band maximum light. The spectrum ranges from 4 to 14μm and shows many unique qualities, including a flat-topped [Ariii] 8.991μm profile, a strongly tilted [Coiii] 11.888μm feature, and multiple stable Ni lines. These features provide critical information about the physics of the explosion. The observations are compared to synthetic spectra from detailed non–local thermodynamic equilibrium multidimensional models. The results of the best-fitting model are used to identify the components of the spectral blends and provide a quantitative comparison to the explosion physics. Emission line profiles and the presence of electron capture elements are used to constrain the mass of the exploding white dwarf (WD) and the chemical asymmetries in the ejecta. We show that the observations of SN 2021aefx are consistent with an off-center delayed detonation explosion of a near–Chandrasekhar mass (MCh) WD at a viewing angle of −30° relative to the point of the deflagration to detonation transition. From the strengths of the stable Ni lines, we determine that there is little to no mixing in the central regions of the ejecta. Based on both the presence of stable Ni and the Ar velocity distributions, we obtain a strict lower limit of 1.2Mfor the initial WD, implying that most sub-MChexplosions models are not viable models for SN 2021aefx. The analysis here shows the crucial importance of MIR spectra in distinguishing between explosion scenarios for SNe Ia.

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