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  1. Abstract Deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved state-of-the-art performance in many important domains, including medical diagnosis, security, and autonomous driving. In domains where safety is highly critical, an erroneous decision can result in serious consequences. While a perfect prediction accuracy is not always achievable, recent work on Bayesian deep networks shows that it is possible to know when DNNs are more likely to make mistakes. Knowing what DNNs do not know is desirable to increase the safety of deep learning technology in sensitive applications; Bayesian neural networks attempt to address this challenge. Traditional approaches are computationally intractable and do not scale well to large, complex neural network architectures. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework to approximate Bayesian inference for DNNs by imposing a Bernoulli distribution on the model weights. This method called Monte Carlo DropConnect (MC-DropConnect) gives us a tool to represent the model uncertainty with little change in the overall model structure or computational cost. We extensively validate the proposed algorithm on multiple network architectures and datasets for classification and semantic segmentation tasks. We also propose new metrics to quantify uncertainty estimates. This enables an objective comparison between MC-DropConnect and prior approaches. Our empirical results demonstrate thatmore »the proposed framework yields significant improvement in both prediction accuracy and uncertainty estimation quality compared to the state of the art.« less
  2. In proportion to the immense construction of spatial structures is the emergence of catastrophes related to structural damages (e.g. loose connections), thus rendering personal injury and property loss. It is therefore essential to detect spatial bolt looseness. Current methods for detecting spatial bolt looseness mostly focus on contact-type measurement, which may not be practical in some cases. Thus, inspired by the sound-based human diagnostic approach, we develop a novel percussion method using the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient and the memory-augmented neural network in this article. In comparison with current investigations, the main contribution of this article is the detection of multi-bolt looseness for the first time with higher accuracy than prior methods. In particular, in terms of new data obtained via similar joints, the memory-augmented neural network can help avoid inefficient relearn and assimilate new data to provide accurate prediction with only a few data samples, which effectively improves the robustness of detection. Furthermore, percussion was implemented with a robotic arm instead of manual operation, which preliminarily explores the potential of implementing automation applications in real industries. Finally, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which can guide future development of cyber-physics systems for structural health detection.
  3. Knowing when a machine learning system is not confident about its prediction is crucial in medical domains where safety is critical. Ideally, a machine learning algorithm should make a prediction only when it is highly certain about its competency, and refer the case to physicians otherwise. In this paper, we investigate how Bayesian deep learning can improve the performance of the machine–physician team in the skin lesion classification task. We used the publicly available HAM10000 dataset, which includes samples from seven common skin lesion categories: Melanoma (MEL), Melanocytic Nevi (NV), Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Actinic Keratoses and Intraepithelial Carcinoma (AKIEC), Benign Keratosis (BKL), Dermatofibroma (DF), and Vascular (VASC) lesions. Our experimental results show that Bayesian deep networks can boost the diagnostic performance of the standard DenseNet-169 model from 81.35% to 83.59% without incurring additional parameters or heavy computation. More importantly, a hybrid physician–machine workflow reaches a classification accuracy of 90 % while only referring 35 % of the cases to physicians. The findings are expected to generalize to other medical diagnosis applications. We believe that the availability of risk-aware machine learning methods will enable a wider adoption of machine learning technology in clinical settings.
  4. Time lapse microscopy is essential for quantifying the dynamics of cells, subcellular organelles and biomolecules. Biologists use different fluorescent tags to label and track the subcellular structures and biomolecules within cells. However, not all of them are compatible with time lapse imaging, and the labeling itself can perturb the cells in undesirable ways. We hypothesized that phase image has the requisite information to identify and track nuclei within cells. By utilizing both traditional blob detection to generate binary mask labels from the stained channel images and the deep learning Mask RCNN model to train a detection and segmentation model, we managed to segment nuclei based only on phase images. The detection average precision is 0.82 when the IoU threshold is to be set 0.5. And the mean IoU for masks generated from phase images and ground truth masks from experts is 0.735. Without any ground truth mask labels during the training time, this is good enough to prove our hypothesis. This result enables the ability to detect nuclei without the need for exogenous labeling.