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  1. The cell adhesion molecule neuroligin2 (NLGN2) regulates GABAergic synapse development, but its role inneural circuit function in the adult hippocampus is unclear. We investigated GABAergic synapses and hippo-campus-dependent behaviors following viral-vector-mediated overexpression of NLGN2. Transducing hippo-campal neurons with AAV-NLGN2 increased neuronal expression of NLGN2 and membrane localization ofGABAergic postsynaptic proteins gephyrin and GABAARγ2, and presynaptic vesicular GABA transporter protein(VGAT) suggesting trans-synaptic enhancement of GABAergic synapses. In contrast, glutamatergic postsynapticdensity protein-95 (PSD-95) and presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) protein were unaltered.Moreover, AAV-NLGN2 significantly increased parvalbumin immunoreactive (PV+) synaptic boutons co-loca-lized with postsynaptic gephyrin+puncta. Furthermore, these changes were demonstrated to lead tomore »cognitiveimpairments as shown in a battery of hippocampal-dependent mnemonic tasks and social behaviors.« less
  2. GABAergic interneuron dysfunction has been implicated in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), autism, and schizophrenia. Inhibitory interneuron progenitors transplanted into the hippocampus of rodents with TLE provide varying degrees of seizure suppression. We investigated whether human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived interneuron progenitors (hESNPs) could differentiate, correct hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits, and suppress seizures in a pilocarpine-induced TLE mouse model. We found that transplanted ventralized hESNPs differentiated into mature GABAergic interneurons and became electrophysiologically active with mature firing patterns. Some mice developed hESNP-derived tumor-like NSC clusters. Mice with transplants showed significant improvement in the Morris water maze test, but transplants did notmore »suppress seizures. The limited effects of the human GABAergic interneuron progenitor grafts may be due to cell type heterogeneity within the transplants.« less