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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Numerical relativity (NR) simulations of binary black hole (BBH) systems provide the most accurate gravitational wave predictions, but at a high computational cost—especially when the black holes have nearly extremal spins (i.e. spins near the theoretical upper limit) or very unequal masses. Recently, the technique of reduced order modeling has enabled the construction of ‘surrogate models’ trained on an existing set of NR waveforms. Surrogate models enable the rapid computation of the gravitational waves emitted by BBHs. Typically these models are used for interpolation to compute gravitational waveforms for BBHs with mass ratios and spins within the bounds of the training set. Because simulations with nearly extremal spins are so technically challenging, surrogate models almost always rely on training sets with only moderate spins. In this paper, we explore how well surrogate models can extrapolate to nearly extremal spins when the training set only includes moderate spins. For simplicity, we focus on one-dimensional surrogate models trained on NR simulations of BBHs with equal masses and equal, aligned spins. We assess the performance of the surrogate models at higher spin magnitudes by calculating the mismatches between extrapolated surrogate model waveforms and NR waveforms, by calculating the differences between extrapolated and NR measurements of the remnant black-hole mass, and by testing how the surrogate model improves as the training set extends to higher spins. We find that while extrapolation in this one-dimensional case is viable for current detector sensitivities, surrogate models for next-generation detectors should use training sets that extend to nearly extremal spins. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
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