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  1. Context. The dynamics of the intracluster medium (ICM) is affected by turbulence driven by several processes, such as mergers, accretion and feedback from active galactic nuclei. Aims. X-ray surface brightness fluctuations have been used to constrain turbulence in galaxy clusters. Here, we use simulations to further investigate the relation between gas density and turbulent velocity fluctuations, with a focus on the effect of the stratification of the ICM. Methods. In this work, we studied the turbulence driven by hierarchical accretion by analysing a sample of galaxy clusters simulated with the cosmological code ENZO. We used a fixed scale filtering approach to disentangle laminar from turbulent flows. Results. In dynamically perturbed galaxy clusters, we found a relation between the root mean square of density and velocity fluctuations, albeit with a different slope than previously reported. The Richardson number is a parameter that represents the ratio between turbulence and buoyancy, and we found that this variable has a strong dependence on the filtering scale. However, we could not detect any strong relation between the Richardson number and the logarithmic density fluctuations, in contrast to results by recent and more idealised simulations. In particular, we find a strong effect from radial accretion, whichmore »appears to be the main driver for the gas fluctuations. The ubiquitous radial bias in the dynamics of the ICM suggests that homogeneity and isotropy are not always valid assumptions, even if the turbulent spectra follow Kolmogorov’s scaling. Finally, we find that the slope of the velocity and density spectra are independent of cluster-centric radii.« less
  2. We report on the possibility of studying the proprieties of cosmic diffuse baryons by studying self-gravitating clumps and filaments connected to galaxy clusters. While filaments are challenging to detect with X-ray observations, the higher density of clumps makes them visible and a viable tracer to study the thermodynamical proprieties of baryons undergoing accretion along cosmic web filaments onto galaxy clusters. We developed new algorithms to identify these structures and applied them to a set of non-radiative cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters at high resolution. We find that in those simulated clusters, the density and temperature of clumps are independent of the mass of the cluster where they reside. We detected a positive correlation between the filament temperature and the host cluster mass. The density and temperature of clumps and filaments also tended to correlate. Both the temperature and density decrease moving outward. We observed that clumps are hotter, more massive, and more luminous if identified closer to the cluster center. Especially in the outermost cluster regions (∼3⋅ R 500,  c or beyond), X-ray observations might already have the potential to locate cosmic filaments based on the distribution of clumps and to allow one to study the thermodynamics of diffuse baryonsmore »before they are processed by the intracluster medium.« less
  3. We present wideband (1 − 6.5 GHz) polarimetric observations, obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, of the merging galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745, which hosts one of the most complex known radio relic and halo systems. We used both rotation measure synthesis and QU -fitting to find a reasonable agreement of the results obtained with these methods, particularly when the Faraday distribution is simple and the depolarization is mild. The relic is highly polarized over its entire length (850 kpc), reaching a fractional polarization > 30% in some regions. We also observe a strong wavelength-dependent depolarization for some regions of the relic. The northern part of the relic shows a complex Faraday distribution, suggesting that this region is located in or behind the intracluster medium (ICM). Conversely, the southern part of the relic shows a rotation measure very close to the Galactic foreground, with a rather low Faraday dispersion, indicating very little magnetoionic material intervening along the line of sight. Based on a spatially resolved polarization analysis, we find that the scatter of Faraday depths is correlated with the depolarization, indicating that the tangled magnetic field in the ICM causes the depolarization. We conclude that the ICM magneticmore »field could be highly turbulent. At the position of a well known narrow-angle-tailed galaxy (NAT), we find evidence of two components that are clearly separated in the Faraday space. The high Faraday dispersion component seems to be associated with the NAT, suggesting the NAT is embedded in the ICM while the southern part of the relic lies in front of it. If true, this implies that the relic and this radio galaxy are not necessarily physically connected and, thus, the relic may, in fact, not be powered by the shock re-acceleration of fossil electrons from the NAT. The magnetic field orientation follows the relic structure indicating a well-ordered magnetic field. We also detected polarized emission in the halo region; however, the absence of significant Faraday rotation and a low value of Faraday dispersion suggests the polarized emission that was previously considered as the part of the halo does, in fact, originate from the shock(s).« less
  4. Context. Radio relics are diffuse extended synchrotron sources that originate from shock fronts induced by galaxy cluster mergers. The particle acceleration mechanism at the shock fronts is still under debate. The galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214 hosts one of the most intriguing examples of radio relics, known as the Toothbrush. Aims. In order to understand the mechanism(s) that accelerate(s) relativistic particles in the intracluster medium, we investigated the spectral properties of large-scale diffuse extended sources in the merging galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214. Methods. We present new wideband radio continuum observations made with uGMRT and VLA. Our new observations, in combination with previously published data, allowed us to carry out a detailed high-spatial-resolution spectral and curvature analysis over a wide range of frequencies. Results. The integrated spectrum of the Toothbrush closely follows a power law over almost two orders of magnitude in frequency, with a spectral index of −1.16 ± 0.02. We do not find any evidence of spectral steepening below 8 GHz. The subregions of the Toothbrush also exhibit near-perfect power laws and identical spectral slopes, suggesting that the observed spectral index is rather set by the distribution of Mach numbers which may have a similar shape at different parts of the shockmore »front. Indeed, numerical simulations show an intriguing similar spectral index, indicating that the radio spectrum is dominated by the average over the inhomogeneities within the shock, with most of the emission coming from the tail of the Mach number distribution. In contrast to the Toothbrush, the spectra of the fainter relics show a high-frequency steepening. Moreover, the integrated spectrum of the halo also follows a power law from 150 MHz to 3 GHz with a spectral index of −1.16 ± 0.04. We do not find any evidence for spectral curvature, not even in subareas of the halo. This suggest a homogeneous acceleration throughout the cluster volume. Between the “brush” region of the Toothbrush and the halo, the color-color analysis reveals emission that was consistent with an overlap between the two different spectral regions. Conclusions. None of the relic structures, that is, the Toothbrush as a whole or its subregions or the other two fainter relics, show spectral shapes consistent with a single injection of relativistic electrons, such as at a shock, followed by synchrotron aging in a relatively homogeneous environment. Inhomogeneities in some combination of Mach number, magnetic field strength, and projection effects dominate the observed spectral shapes.« less
  5. Radio relics are diffuse, extended synchrotron sources that originate from shock fronts generated during cluster mergers. The massive merging galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 hosts one of the more complex relics known to date. We present upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope band 3 (300−500 MHz) and band 4 (550−850 MHz) observations. These new observations, combined with published VLA and the new LOFAR HBA data, allow us to carry out a detailed, high spatial resolution spectral analysis of the relic over a broad range of frequencies. The integrated spectrum of the relic closely follows a power law between 144 MHz and 5.5 GHz with a mean spectral slope α  = −1.16 ± 0.03. Despite the complex morphology of this relic, its subregions and the other isolated filaments also follow power-law behaviors, and show similar spectral slopes. Assuming diffusive shock acceleration, we estimated a dominant Mach number of ∼3.7 for the shocks that make up the relic. A comparison with recent numerical simulations suggests that in the case of radio relics, the slopes of the integrated radio spectra are determined by the Mach number of the accelerating shock, with α nearly constant, namely between −1.13 and −1.17, for Mach numbers 3.5 − 4.0. The spectral shapes inferred frommore »spatially resolved regions show curvature, we speculate that the relic is inclined along the line of sight. The locus of points in the simulated color-color plots changes significantly with the relic viewing angle. We conclude that projection effects and inhomogeneities in the shock Mach number dominate the observed spectral properties of the relic in this complex system. Based on the new observations we raise the possibility that the relic and a narrow-angle-tailed radio galaxy are two different structures projected along the same line of sight.« less