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  1. Context. The giant molecular cloud Sagittarius B2 (hereafter SgrB2) is the most massive region with ongoing high-mass star formation in the Galaxy. Two ultra-compact H ii (UCHii ) regions were identified in SgrB2’s central hot cores, SgrB2(M) and SgrB2(N). Aims. Our aim is to characterize the properties of the H ii regions in the entire SgrB2 cloud. Comparing the H ii regions and the dust cores, we aim to depict the evolutionary stages of different parts of SgrB2. Methods. We use the Very Large Array in its A, CnB, and D configurations, and in the frequency band C (~6GHz) to observe the whole SgrB2 complex. Using ancillary VLA data at 22.4 GHz and ALMA data at 96 GHz, we calculated the physical parameters of the UCH ii regions and their dense gas environment. Results. We identify 54 UCHii regions in the 6 GHz image, 39 of which are also detected at 22.4 GHz. Eight of the 54 UCHii regions are newly discovered. The UCHii regions have radii between 0.006 pc and 0.04 pc, and have emission measure between 10 6 pc cm 6 and 10 9 pc cm 6 . The UCHii regions are ionized by stars of types from B0.5 to O6. We found a typical gas density of ~10 6 –10 9 cm 3 around the UCH ii regions. The pressure of the UCH ii regions and the dense gas surrounding them are comparable. The expansion timescale of these UCHii regions is determined to be ~10 4 –10 5 yr. The percentage of the dust cores that are associated with H ii regions are 33%, 73%, 4%, and 1% for SgrB2(N), SgrB2(M), SgrB2(S), and SgrB2(DS), respectively. Two-thirds of the dust cores in SgrB2(DS) are associated with outflows. Conclusions. The electron densities of the UCHii regions we identified are in agreement with that of typical UCHii regions, while the radii are smaller than those of the typical UCHii regions. The dust cores in SgrB2(M) are more evolved than in SgrB2(N). The dust cores in SgrB2(DS) are younger than in SgrB2(M) or SgrB2(N). 
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  2. ABSTRACT

    The star-forming activity in the H ii region RCW 42 is investigated using multiple wavebands, from near-infrared to radio wavelengths. Located at a distance of 5.8 kpc, this southern region has a bolometric luminosity of 1.8 × 106 L⊙. The ionized gas emission has been imaged at low radio frequencies of 610 and 1280 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, India, and shows a large expanse of the H ii region, spanning 20 × 15 pc2. The average electron number density in the region is estimated to be ∼70 cm−3, which suggests an average ionization fraction of the cloud to be 11 % . An extended green object EGO G274.0649-01.1460 and several young stellar objects have been identified in the region using data from the 2MASS and Spitzer surveys. The dust emission from the associated molecular cloud is probed using Herschel Space Telescope, which reveals the presence of five clumps, C1-C5, in this region. Two millimetre emission cores of masses 380 and 390 M⊙ towards the radio emission peak have been identified towards C1 from the ALMA map at 1.4 mm. The clumps are investigated for their evolutionary stages based on association with various star-formation tracers, and we find that all the clumps are in active/evolved stage.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    The SEDIGISM (Structure, Excitation and Dynamics of the Inner Galactic Interstellar Medium) survey used the APEX telescope to map 84 deg2 of the Galactic plane between ℓ = −60° and +31° in several molecular transitions, including 13CO (2 – 1) and C18O (2 – 1), thus probing the moderately dense (∼103 cm−3) component of the interstellar medium. With an angular resolution of 30 arcsec and a typical 1σ sensitivity of 0.8–1.0 K at 0.25 km s−1 velocity resolution, it gives access to a wide range of structures, from individual star-forming clumps to giant molecular clouds and complexes. The coverage includes a good fraction of the first and fourth Galactic quadrants, allowing us to constrain the large-scale distribution of cold molecular gas in the inner Galaxy. In this paper, we provide an updated overview of the full survey and the data reduction procedures used. We also assess the quality of these data and describe the data products that are being made publicly available as part of this First Data Release (DR1). We present integrated maps and position–velocity maps of the molecular gas and use these to investigate the correlation between the molecular gas and the large-scale structural features of the Milky Way such as the spiral arms, Galactic bar and Galactic Centre. We find that approximately 60 per cent of the molecular gas is associated with the spiral arms and these appear as strong intensity peaks in the derived Galactocentric distribution. We also find strong peaks in intensity at specific longitudes that correspond to the Galactic Centre and well-known star-forming complexes, revealing that the 13CO emission is concentrated in a small number of complexes rather than evenly distributed along spiral arms.

     
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