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  1. ABSTRACT

    We present the deepest J −Ks near-infrared photometry of the globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904) from observations taken with the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager in tandem with the Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) on the 8.1-m Gemini South telescope. Point spread function (PSF) photometry was carried out using a spatially variable PSF, zero-point calibrations based on correlations to a standard photometric catalogue, colour corrections, and crowding corrections. The latter corrections provided a new challenge given the field variations of the adaptive optics corrections in the central crowded regions of this cluster. The final photometric precision in our J− Ks colour–magnitude diagram exposes a dispersion among the lower main-sequence stars of M5 for the first time. This dispersion occurs below a main-sequence knee due to variations in the helium and CNO (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) abundances from multiple stellar populations, consistent with results from the bright evolved stars in this cluster from ultraviolet to near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope photometry and ground-based spectroscopy. This paper completes our original GeMS quality analysis programme, providing insights into adaptive optics analyses in crowded fields.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    The oldest stars in the Milky Way (born in the first few billion years) are expected to have a high density in the inner few kpc, spatially overlapping with the Galactic bulge. We use spectroscopic data from the Pristine Inner Galaxy Survey (PIGS) to study the dynamical properties of ancient, metal-poor inner Galaxy stars. We compute distances using starhorse, and orbital properties in a barred Galactic potential. With this paper, we release the spectroscopic AAT/PIGS catalogue (13 235 stars). We find that most PIGS stars have orbits typical for a pressure-supported population. The fraction of stars confined to the inner Galaxy decreases with decreasing metallicity, but many very metal-poor stars (VMP; [Fe/H] <−2.0) stay confined ($\sim 60~{{\ \rm per \, cent}}$ stay within 5 kpc). The azimuthal velocity vϕ also decreases between [Fe/H] = −1.0 and −2.0, but is constant for VMP stars (at ∼+40 km s−1). The carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in PIGS appear to have similar orbital properties compared to normal VMP stars. Our results suggest a possible transition between two spheroidal components – a more metal-rich, more concentrated, faster rotating component, and a more metal-poor, more extended and slower/non-rotating component. We propose that the former may be connected to pre-disc in-situ stars (or those born in large building blocks), whereas the latter may be dominated by contributions from smaller galaxies. This is an exciting era where large metal-poor samples, such as in this work (as well as upcoming surveys, e.g. 4MOST), shed light on the earliest evolution of our Galaxy.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    We present a new spectroscopic study of 175 stars in the vicinity of the dwarf galaxy Hercules (d ∼ 132 kpc) with data from the Anglo-Australian Telescope and its AAOmega spectrograph together with the Two Degree Field multi-object system to solve the conundrum that whether Hercules is tidally disrupting. We combine broad-band photometry, proper motions from Gaia, and our Pristine narrow-band and metallicity-sensitive photometry to efficiently weed out the Milky Way contamination. Such cleaning is particularly critical in this kinematic regime, as both the transverse and heliocentric velocities of Milky Way populations overlap with Hercules. Thanks to this method, three new member stars are identified, including one at almost 10rh of the satellite. All three have velocities and metallicities consistent with that of the main body. Combining this new data set with the entire literature cleaned out from contamination shows that Hercules does not exhibit a velocity gradient (d〈v〉/dχ $= 0.1^{+0.4}_{-0.2}$ km s−1 arcmin−1, 1.6 km s−1 arcmin−1 as a 3σ upper limit) and, as such, does not show evidence to undergo tidal disruption.

     
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  4. ABSTRACT

    Gaia EDR3 data were used to identify potential members in the outskirts of three ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies: Coma Berenices (>2Rh), Ursa Major I (∼4Rh), and Boötes I (∼4Rh), as well as a new member in the central region of Ursa Major I. These targets were observed with the Gemini GRACES spectrograph, which was used to determine precision radial velocities and metallicities that confirm their associations with the UFD galaxies. The spectra were also used to measure absorption lines for 10 elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Ba), which confirm that the chemical abundances of the outermost stars are in good agreement with stars in the central regions. The abundance ratios and chemical patterns of the stars in Coma Berenices are consistent with contributions from SN Ia, which is unusual for its star formation history and in conflict with previous suggestions that this system evolved chemically from a single core collapse supernova event. The chemistries for all three galaxies are consistent with the outermost stars forming in the central regions, then moving to their current locations through tidal stripping and/or supernova feedback. In Boötes I, however, the lower metallicity and lack of strong carbon enrichment of its outermost stars could also be evidence of a dwarf galaxy merger.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    The investigation of the metal-poor tail in the Galactic bulge provides unique information on the early Milky Way assembly and evolution. A chemo-dynamical analysis of 17 very metal-poor stars (VMP, [Fe/H]<−2.0) selected from the Pristine Inner Galaxy Survey was carried out based on Gemini/GRACES spectra. The chemistry suggests that the majority of our stars are very similar to metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo. Orbits calculated from Gaia EDR3 imply these stars are brought into the bulge during the earliest Galactic assembly. Most of our stars have large [Na,Ca/Mg] abundances, and thus show little evidence of enrichment by pair-instability supernovae. Two of our stars (P171457 and P184700) have chemical abundances compatible with second-generation globular cluster stars, suggestive of the presence of ancient and now dissolved globular clusters in the inner Galaxy. One of them (P171457) is extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H]<−3.0) and well below the metallicity floor of globular clusters, which supports the growing evidence for the existence of lower-metallicity globular clusters in the early Universe. A third star (P180956, [Fe/H]∼−2) has low [Na,Ca/Mg] and very low [Ba/Fe] for its metallicity, which are consistent with formation in a system polluted by only one or a few low-mass supernovae. Interestingly, its orbit is confined to the Galactic plane, like other very metal-poor stars found in the literature, which have been associated with the earliest building blocks of the Milky Way.

     
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