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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  3. Tangential velocity (Vt) of tornadoes is the major parameter that causes building damage. In-field tornado measurements are less reliable at less than 20 m above ground level (AGL). Laboratory tornado simulators suggest that swirl ratio (S) and radius (ro) are the major tornado parameters that influence the Vt. However, due to scaling problems, the laboratory simulators also report the Vt at greater than 20 m AGL. Well-refined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can evaluate the Vt at less than 10 m AGL. However, the CFD models are limited to ro = 1.0 km, and the effect of ro on Vt is not investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the maximum Vt for different ro close to ground. Simulation results show that increasing ro decreases the maximum Vt with respect to Vro. Moreover, by increasing ro, the corresponding elevation of occurrence of maximum Vt (zmax) will increase. However, for all tornado radii, the zmax is between 20 m and 64 m AGL. In addition, results show that for all ro, the radial Vt profile has two peaks at z < 10 m AGL due to strong shear force close to the ground and at higher elevation the profile transits to Rankine Combined Vortex Model (RCVM).
  4. Tangential velocity (Vt) of tornadoes is the major parameter that causes building damage. In-field tornado measurements are less reliable at less than 20 m above ground level (AGL). Laboratory tornado simulators suggest that swirl ratio (S) and radius (ro) are the major tornado parameters that influence the Vt. However, due to scaling problems, the laboratory simulators also report the Vt at greater than 20 m AGL. Well-refined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can evaluate the Vt at less than 10 m AGL. However, the CFD models are limited to ro = 1.0 km, and the effect of ro on Vt is not investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the maximum Vt for different ro close to ground. Simulation results show that increasing ro decreases the maximum Vt with respect to Vro. Moreover, by increasing ro, the corresponding elevation of occurrence of maximum Vt (zmax) will increase. However, for all tornado radii, the zmax is between 20 m and 64 m AGL. In addition, results show that for all ro, the radial Vt profile has two peaks at z < 10 m AGL due to strong shear force close to the ground and at higher elevation the profile transits to Rankine Combined Vortex Model (RCVM).
  5. Design, prototyping and initial experimentation with hybrid soft/stiff continuum robot.
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023