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Highly resolved laboratory measurements of the airflow over windgenerated waves are examined using a novel wave growth diagnostic that quantifies the presence of Miles’ critical layer mechanism of windwave growth. The wave growth diagnostic is formulated based on a linear stability analysis, and results in growth rates that agree well with those found by a pressure reconstruction method as well as other, less direct, methods. This finding, combined with a close agreement between the airflow measurements and the predictions of linear stability (critical layer) theory, demonstrate that the Miles’ critical layer mechanism can cause significant wave growth in young (wave age $c/u_* = 6.3$ , where $c$ is the wave phase speed, and $u_*$ the friction velocity) windforced waves.more » « less

The smallscale physics within the first centimetres above the wavy air–sea interface are the gateway for transfers of momentum and scalars between the atmosphere and the ocean. We present an experimental investigation of the surface wind stress over laboratory windgenerated waves. Measurements were performed at the University of Delaware's large windwavecurrent facility using a recently developed stateoftheart windwave imaging system. The system was deployed at a fetch of 22.7 m, with wind speeds from 2.19 to $16.63\ \textrm {m}\ \textrm {s}^{1}$ . Airflow velocity fields were acquired using particle image velocimetry above the wind waves down to $100\ \mathrm {\mu }\textrm {m}$ above the surface, and wave profiles were detected using laserinduced fluorescence. The airflow intermittently separates downwind of wave crests, starting at wind speeds as low as $2.19\ \textrm {m}\ \textrm {s}^{1}$ . Such events are accompanied by a dramatic drop in tangential viscous stress past the wave's crest, and a gradual regeneration of the viscous sublayer upon the following (downwind) crest. This contrasts with nonairflow separating waves, where the surface viscous stress drop is less significant. Airflow separation becomes increasingly dominant with increasing wind speed and wave slope $a k$ (where $a$ and $k$ are peak wave amplitude and wavenumber, respectively). At the highest wind speed ( $16.63\ \textrm {m}\ \textrm {s}^{1}$ ), airflow separation occurs over nearly 100 % of the wave crests. The total air–water momentum flux is partitioned between viscous stress and form drag at the interface. Viscous stress (respectively form drag) dominates at low (respectively high) wave slopes. Tangential viscous forcing makes a minor contribution ( ${\sim }3\,\%$ ) to wave growth.more » « less

null (Ed.)The development of the governing equations for fluid flow in a surfacefollowing coordinate system is essential to investigate the fluid flow near an interface deformed by propagating waves. In this paper, the governing equations of fluid flow, including conservation of mass, momentum and energy balance, are derived in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system relevant to surface water waves. All equations are further decomposed to extract mean, waveinduced and turbulent components. The complete transformed equations include explicit extra geometric terms. For example, turbulent stress and production terms include the effects of coordinate curvature on the structure of fluid flow. Furthermore, the governing equations of motion were further simplified by considering the flow over periodic quasilinear surface waves wherein the wavelength of the disturbance is large compared to the wave amplitude. The quasilinear analysis is employed to express the boundary layer equations in the orthogonal wavefollowing curvilinear coordinates with the corresponding decomposed equations for the mean, wave and turbulent fields. Finally, the vorticity equations are also derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinates in order to express the corresponding velocity–vorticity formulations. The equations developed in this paper proved to be useful in the analysis and interpretation of experimental data of fluid flow over windgenerated surface waves. Experimental results are presented in a companion paper.more » « less

null (Ed.)The air–sea momentum exchanges in the presence of surface waves play an integral role in coupling the atmosphere and the ocean. In the current study, we present a detailed laboratory investigation of the momentum fluxes over windgenerated waves. Experiments were performed in the large windwave facility at the Air–Sea Interaction Laboratory of the University of Delaware. Airflow velocity measurements were acquired above wind waves using a combination of particle image velocimetry and laserinduced fluorescence techniques. The momentum budget is examined using a wavefollowing orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. In the wave boundary layer, the phaseaveraged turbulent stress is intense (weak) and positive downwind (upwind) of the crests. The waveinduced stress is also positive on the windward and leeward sides of wave crests but with asymmetric intensities. These regions of positive wave stress are intertwined with regions of negative wave stress just above wave crests and downwind of wave troughs. Likewise, at the interface, the viscous stress exhibits alongwave phaselocked variations with maxima upwind of the wave crests. As a general trend, the mean profiles of the waveinduced stress decrease to a negative minimum from a nearzero value far from the surface and then increase rapidly to a positive value near the interface where the turbulent stress is reduced. Far away from the surface, however, the turbulent stress is nearly equal to the total stress. Very close to the surface, in the viscous sublayer, the wave and turbulent stresses vanish, and therefore the stress is supported by the viscosity.more » « less

Abstract Laboratory measurements of droplet size, velocity, and accelerations generated by mechanically and wind‐forced water breaking waves are reported. The wind free stream velocity is up to 12 m/s, leading to wave slopes from 0.15 to 0.35 at a fetch of 23 m. The ratio of wind free stream and wave phase speed ranges from 5.9 to 11.1, depending on the mechanical wave frequency. The droplet size distribution in all configurations can be represented by two power laws,
N (d ) ∝d ^{−1}for drops from 30 to 600 μm andN (d ) ∝d ^{−4}above 600 μm. The horizontal and vertical droplet velocities appear correlated, with drops with slower horizontal speed more likely to move upward. The velocity and acceleration distributions are found to be asymmetric, with the velocity probability density functions (PDFs) being described by a normal‐inverse‐Gaussian distribution. The horizontal acceleration PDF are found to follow a shape close to the one predicted for small particles in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, while the vertical distribution follows an asymmetric normal shape, showing that both acceleration components are controlled by different physical processes.