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  1. Abstract Background Spawning migrations are a widespread phenomenon among fishes, often occurring in response to environmental conditions prompting movement into reproductive habitats (migratory cues). However, for many species, individual fish may choose not to migrate, and research suggests that conditions preceding the spawning season (migratory primers) may influence this decision. Few studies have provided empirical descriptions of these prior conditions, partly due to a lack of long-term data allowing for robust multi-year comparisons. To investigate how primers and cues interact to shape the spawning migrations of coastal fishes, we use acoustic telemetry data from Common Snook ( Centropomus undecimalis ) in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. A contingent of Snook migrate between rivers and coastal spawning sites, varying annually in both the proportion of the population that migrates and the timing of migration within the spawning season. However, the specific environmental factors that serve as migratory primers and cues remain unknown. Methods We used eight years of acoustic telemetry data (2012–2019) from 173 tagged Common Snook to investigate how primers and cues influence migratory patterns at different temporal scales. We hypothesize that (1) interannual differences in hydrologic conditions preceding the spawning season contribute to the number of individuals migrating each year, and (2) specific environmental cues trigger the timing of migrations during the spawning season. We used GLMMs to model both the annual and seasonal migratory response in relation to flow characteristics (water level, rate of change in water level), other hydrologic/abiotic conditions (temperature, salinity), fish size, and phenological cues independent of riverine conditions (photoperiod, lunar cycle). Results We found that the extent of minimum marsh water level prior to migration and fish size influence the proportion of Snook migrating each year, and that high river water level and daily rates of change serve as primary cues triggering migration timing. Conclusion Our findings illustrate how spawning migrations are shaped by environmental factors acting at different temporal scales and emphasize the importance of long-term movement data in understanding these patterns. Research providing mechanistic descriptions of conditions that promote migration and reproduction can help inform management decisions aimed at conserving ecologically and economically important species. 
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  2. The patchy nature of landscapes drives variation in the extent of ecological processes across space. This spatial ecology is critical to our understanding of organism-environmental interactions and conservation, restoration, and resource management efforts. In fisheries, incorporation of the spatial ecology of fishes remains limited, despite its importance to fishery assessment and management. This study quantified the effects of variation in headwater river stage, as an indicator of freshwater inflow, on the distribution and movement of a valuable recreational fishery species in Florida, common snook (Centropomus undecimalis). The hypothesis tested was that variation in river stage caused important habitat shifts and changes in the movement behavior of Snook. A combination of electrofishing and acoustic telemetry was used to quantify the distribution and movement patterns of snook in the upper Shark River Estuary, Everglades National Park. Negative relationships with river stage were found for all three variables measured: electrofishing catch per unit effort, the proportion of detections by upstream acoustic receivers, and movement rates. Snook were up to 5.8 times more abundant, were detected 2.3 times more frequently, and moved up to 4 times faster at lower river stages associated with seasonal drawdowns in water level. These findings show how seasonal drawdowns result in local aggregations of consumers, largely driven by improved foraging opportunities, and emphasize the importance of maintaining the natural variance in managed hydrological regimes. Results also highlight the importance of understanding the nature of flow-ecology relationships, especially given projected changes in freshwater availability with climate change. 
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    Seagrasses are threatened worldwide due to anthropogenic and natural disturbances disrupting the multiple feedbacks needed to maintain these ecosystems. If the disturbance is severe enough, seagrass systems may undergo a regime shift to a degraded system state that is resistant to recovery. In Florida Bay, Florida, United States, two recent, large-scale disturbances (a drought-induced seagrass die-off in 2015 and Hurricane Irma in 2017) have caused 8,777 ha of seagrass beds to degrade into a turbid, unvegetated state, causing a large sediment plume. Using satellite imagery digitization and long-term seagrass cover data, we investigate the expansion of this sediment plume between 2008 and 2020 and the potential interaction of this sediment plume with seagrass recovery in two focal basins in Florida Bay affected by the die-off, Johnson and Rankin. The average size of the sediment plume increased by 37% due to the die-off and Hurricane Irma, increasing from an average of 163.5 km 2 before the disturbances to an average of 223.5 km 2 . The expansion of the plume was basin-specific, expanding into Johnson after the 2015 seagrass die-off with expansive and long-lasting effects, but only expanding into Rankin after Hurricane Irma with less severe and short-term effects. Furthermore, the sediment plume was negatively correlated with seagrass cover in Johnson, but held no relationship with seagrass cover in Rankin. Thus, different disturbances can act upon seagrass ecosystems at varying scales with varying consequences. This study illustrates the advantage of combining satellite imagery with field data to monitor disturbances as well as highlights the importance of investigating disturbances of seagrass ecosystems at various scales to comprehend seagrass resilience in the context of future extreme events. 
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  5. Extreme climate events such as hurricanes can influence the movement and distribution of fish and other aquatic vertebrates. However, our understanding of the scale of movement responses and how they vary across taxa and ecosystems remains incomplete. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry data to investigate the movement patterns of common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) in the Florida Coastal Everglades during Hurricane Irma, which made landfall on the southwest Florida coast as a Category 3 storm on 10 September 2017 after passing in close proximity to our study site. We hypothesized that the hurricane resulted in shifts in distribution and that these movements may have been driven by environmental cues stemming from changes in barometric pressure associated with hurricane conditions, fluctuations in water levels (stage) characterizing altered riverine conditions, or a combination of both hurricane and riverine drivers. The data revealed large-scale movements of common snook in the time period surrounding hurricane passage, with 73% of fish detected moving from the upper river into downriver habitats, and some individuals potentially exiting the river. Furthermore, regression model selection indicated that these movements were correlated to both hurricane and riverine conditions, showing increased common snook movement at higher river stage and lower barometric pressure, and stage explaining a larger proportion of model deviance. Animal movement has widespread and diverse ecological implications, and by better understanding the factors that drive movement, we may anticipate how future extreme climate events could affect fish populations in impact-prone regions. 
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  6. Predicting the responses of animals to environmental changes is a fundamental goal of ecology and is necessary for conservation and management of species. While most studies focus on relatively gradual changes, extreme events may have lasting impacts on populations. Animals respond to major disturbances such as hurricanes by seeking shelter, migrating, or they may fail to respond appropriately. We assessed the effects of Hurricane Irma in 2017 on the behavior and survival of juvenile bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) within a nursery of the Florida coastal Everglades using long-term acoustic telemetry monitoring. Most of our tagged sharks (n = 14) attempted to leave the shallow waters of the Shark River Estuary before the hurricane strike, but individuals varied in the timing and success of their movements. Eight bull sharks left within hours or days before the hurricane, but three left more than a week in advance. Nine of 11 bull sharks (~ 82%) eventually returned to the array within weeks or months of the storm. Six of these returning individuals were detected in a different coastal array in nearshore waters ca. 80 km away from the mouth of the estuary during their absence. The remaining three bull sharks moved downstream relatively late (after the hurricane) and may have died. We used binomial generalized linear mixed models to estimate the probability of presence within the array as a function of several environmental variables. Departure from the array was predicted by declining barometric pressure, increasing rate of change in pressure, and potentially fluctuations in river stage. Juvenile bull sharks may weigh multiple environmental cues, perceived predation risk, their own physical size, and shifting prey resources when making decisions during and after hurricanes. 
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