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  1. Venom is a key adaptive innovation in snakes, and how nonvenom genes were co-opted to become part of the toxin arsenal is a significant evolutionary question. While this process has been investigated through the phylogenetic reconstruction of toxin sequences, evidence provided by the genomic context of toxin genes remains less explored. To investigate the process of toxin recruitment, we sequenced the genome ofBothrops jararaca, a clinically relevant pitviper. In addition to producing a road map with canonical structures of genes encoding 12 toxin families, we inferred most of the ancestral genes for their loci. We found evidence that 1) snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and phospholipases A2(PLA2) have expanded in genomic proximity to their nonvenomous ancestors; 2) serine proteinases arose by co-opting a local gene that also gave rise to lizard gilatoxins and then expanded; 3) the bradykinin-potentiating peptides originated from a C-type natriuretic peptide gene backbone; and 4) VEGF-F was co-opted from a PGF-like gene and not from VEGF-A. We evaluated two scenarios for the original recruitment of nontoxin genes for snake venom: 1) in locus ancestral gene duplication and 2) in locus ancestral gene direct co-option. The first explains the origins of two important toxins (SVMP and PLA2), whilemore »the second explains the emergence of a greater number of venom components. Overall, our results support the idea of a locally assembled venom arsenal in which the most clinically relevant toxin families expanded through posterior gene duplications, regardless of whether they originated by duplication or gene co-option.

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  2. True, John (Ed.)
    Abstract Novel phenotypes are commonly associated with gene duplications and neofunctionalization, less documented are the cases of phenotypic maintenance through the recruitment of novel genes. Proteolysis is the primary toxic character of many snake venoms, and ADAM metalloproteinases, named snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), are largely recognized as the major effectors of this phenotype. However, by investigating original transcriptomes from 58 species of advanced snakes (Caenophidia) across their phylogeny, we discovered that a different enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), is actually the dominant venom component in three tribes (Tachymenini, Xenodontini, and Conophiini) of rear-fanged snakes (Dipsadidae). Proteomic and functional analyses of these venoms further indicate that MMPs are likely playing an “SVMP-like” function in the proteolytic phenotype. A detailed look into the venom-specific sequences revealed a new highly expressed MMP subtype, named snake venom MMP (svMMP), which originated independently on at least three occasions from an endogenous MMP-9. We further show that by losing ancillary noncatalytic domains present in its ancestors, svMMPs followed an evolutionary path toward a simplified structure during their expansion in the genomes, thus paralleling what has been proposed for the evolution of their Viperidae counterparts, the SVMPs. Moreover, we inferred an inverse relationship between the expression of svMMPsmore »and SVMPs along the evolutionary history of Xenodontinae, pointing out that one type of enzyme may be substituting for the other, whereas the general (metallo)proteolytic phenotype is maintained. These results provide rare evidence on how relevant phenotypic traits can be optimized via natural selection on nonhomologous genes, yielding alternate biochemical components.« less
  3. The role of natural selection in the evolution of trait complexity can be characterized by testing hypothesized links between complex forms and their functions across species. Predatory venoms are composed of multiple proteins that collectively function to incapacitate prey. Venom complexity fluctuates over evolutionary timescales, with apparent increases and decreases in complexity, and yet the causes of this variation are unclear. We tested alternative hypotheses linking venom complexity and ecological sources of selection from diet in the largest clade of front-fanged venomous snakes in North America: the rattlesnakes, copperheads, cantils, and cottonmouths. We generated independent transcriptomic and proteomic measures of venom complexity and collated several natural history studies to quantify dietary variation. We then constructed genome-scale phylogenies for these snakes for comparative analyses. Strikingly, prey phylogenetic diversity was more strongly correlated to venom complexity than was overall prey species diversity, specifically implicating prey species’ divergence, rather than the number of lineages alone, in the evolution of complexity. Prey phylogenetic diversity further predicted transcriptomic complexity of three of the four largest gene families in viper venom, showing that complexity evolution is a concerted response among many independent gene families. We suggest that the phylogenetic diversity of prey measures functionally relevant divergencemore »in the targets of venom, a claim supported by sequence diversity in the coagulation cascade targets of venom. Our results support the general concept that the diversity of species in an ecological community is more important than their overall number in determining evolutionary patterns in predator trait complexity.

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