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  1. The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal represents a long-standing open question in astroparticle physics. The SABRE experiment aims to test such claim, bringing the same detection technique to an unprecedented sensitivity. Based on ultra-low background NaI(Tl) scintillating crystals like DAMA, SABRE features a liquid scintillator Veto system, surrounding the main target, and it will deploy twin detectors: one in the Northern hemisphere at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy and the other in the Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory (SUPL), Australia, first laboratory of this kind in the Southern hemisphere. The first very-high-purity crystal produced bymore »the collaboration was shipped to LNGS in 2019 for characterization. It features a potassium contamination, measured by mass spectroscopy, of the order of 4 ppb, about three times lower than DAMA/LIBRA crystals. The first phase of the SABRE experiment is a Proof-of-Principle (PoP) detector featuring one crystal and a liquid scintillator Veto, at LNGS. This contribution will present the results of the stand-alone characterization of the first SABRE high-purity crystal, as well as the status of the PoP detector, commissioned early in the summer of 2020.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 10, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Ultra-pure NaI(Tl) crystals are the key element for a model-independent verification of the long standing DAMA result and a powerful means to search for the annual modulation signature of dark matter interactions. The SABRE collaboration has been developing cutting-edge techniques for the reduction of intrinsic backgrounds over several years. In this paper we report the first characterization of a 3.4 kg crystal, named NaI-33, performed in an underground passive shielding setup at LNGS. NaI-33 has a record low$$^{39}$$39K contamination of 4.3 ± 0.2 ppb as determined by mass spectrometry. We measured a light yield of 11.1 ± 0.2 photoelectrons/keV and an energymore »resolution of 13.2% (FWHM/E) at 59.5 keV. We evaluated the activities of$$^{226}$$226Ra and$$^{228}$$228Th inside the crystal to be$$5.9\pm 0.6~\upmu $$5.9±0.6μBq/kg and$$1.6\pm 0.3~\upmu $$1.6±0.3μBq/kg, respectively, which would indicate a contamination from$$^{238}$$238U and$$^{232}$$232Th at part-per-trillion level. We measured an activity of 0.51 ± 0.02 mBq/kg due to$$^{210}$$210Pb out of equilibrium and a$$\alpha $$αquenching factor of 0.63 ± 0.01 at 5304 keV. We illustrate the analyses techniques developed to reject electronic noise in the lower part of the energy spectrum. A cut-based strategy and a multivariate approach indicated a rate, attributed to the intrinsic radioactivity of the crystal, of$$\sim $$1 count/day/kg/keV in the [5–20] keV region.

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  3. Abstract SABRE is a dark matter direct detection experiment aiming to measure the annual modulation of the dark matter interaction rate in NaI(Tl) crystals. SABRE focuses on the achievement of an ultra-low background rate operating high-purity NaI(Tl) crystals in a liquid scintillator veto for active background rejection. Moreover, twin experiments will be located in both Northern and Southern hemispheres (Italy and Australia) to disentangle any possible contribution from seasonal or site-related effects. In this article the results of the first measurements with a NaI(Tl) crystal for the SABRE experiment performed at LNGS are presented.
  4. Abstract SABRE is a dark matter direct detection experiment based on NaI(Tl) scintillating crystals. The primary goal of the experiment is to test the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal. To reach its purpose, SABRE will operate an array of ultra-low background NaI(Tl) crystals within an active veto, based on liquid scintillator. Finally two twin detectors will be used, one in the northern hemisphere at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy (LNGS) and the other, first of its kind, in the southern hemisphere, in the Stawell Underground Physic Laboratory (SUPL). The collaboration has successfully developed a NaI(Tl)more »crystal with the impressive potassium content of about 4 ppb, according to the mass spectroscopy measurements. A value that, if confirmed, would be about 3 times lower than the DAMA/LIBRA crystals one. The first phase of the SABRE experiment, called SABRE Proof of Principle (PoP), aims to prove the achieved radiopurity by direct measurement of crystals at LNGS. This work reports the status of the PoP setup and the recent progresses on the development of low radioactivity NaI(Tl) crystals.« less
  5. The SABRE (Sodium-iodide with Active Background REjection) experiment is a new detector based on NaI(Tl) scintillating crystals for the dark matter detection through the annual modulation. With ultra-pure crystals and an active veto system, based on liquid scintillator surrounding the crystal array, SABRE will reach unprecedented low background and the highest sensitivity among the present NaI(Tl) experiments. Moreover SABRE will be the first dark matter search with twin detectors located in the North and South hemispheres, in Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS), Italy, and Stawell Underground Laboratories (SUPL), Australia, respectively. The double location will help to quantify possible seasonal effects,more »and is a unique feature to identify a modulation of dark matter origins. SABRE is presently in the Proof-of-Principle (PoP) phase, with the goal to measure the crystal intrinsic and cosmogenic backgrounds of one 5 kg crystal and the active veto efficiency. We have performed a full geometry Monte Carlo simulation in order to evaluate the background contributions in the two distinct operation modes foreseen for the PoP: the potassium Measurement Mode (KMM) and the Dark Matter Measurement Mode (DMM), where the liquid scintillator detector is used in coincidence or anti-coincidence with the crystal, respectively. This paper presents the results of a detailed background simulation and the expected sensitivity for the SABRE full scale experiment.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  7. Abstract The ProtoDUNE-SP detector is a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that was constructed and operated in the CERN North Area at the end of the H4 beamline. This detector is a prototype for the first far detector module of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), which will be constructed at the Sandford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, U.S.A. The ProtoDUNE-SP detector incorporates full-size components as designed for DUNE and has an active volume of 7 × 6 × 7.2 m 3 . The H4 beam delivers incident particles with well-measured momenta and high-purity particle identification. ProtoDUNE-SP's successful operationmore »between 2018 and 2020 demonstrates the effectiveness of the single-phase far detector design. This paper describes the design, construction, assembly and operation of the detector components.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023