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  1. ABSTRACT We analyse Gaia EDR3 and re-calibrated HST proper motion data from the core-collapsed and non-core-collapsed globular clusters NGC 6397 and NGC 3201, respectively, with the Bayesian mass-orbit modelling code MAMPOSSt-PM. We use Bayesian evidence and realistic mock data sets constructed with Agama to select between different mass models. In both clusters, the velocities are consistent with isotropy within the extent of our data. We robustly detect a dark central mass (DCM) of roughly $1000\, \rm M_\odot$ in both clusters. Our MAMPOSSt-PM fits strongly prefer an extended DCM in NGC 6397, while only presenting a mild preference for it in NGC 3201, with respective sizes of a roughly one and a few per cent of the cluster effective radius. We explore the astrophysics behind our results with the CMC Monte Carlo N-body code, whose snapshots best matching the phase space observations lead to similar values for the mass and size of the DCM. The internal kinematics are thus consistent with a population of hundreds of massive white dwarfs in NGC 6397, and roughly 100 segregated stellar-mass black holes in NGC 3201, as previously found with CMC. Such analyses confirm the accuracy of both mass-orbit modelling and Monte Carlo N-body techniques, which together provide more robust predictionsmore »on the DCM of globular clusters (core-collapsed or not). This opens possibilities to understand a vast range of interesting astrophysical phenomena in clusters, such as fast radio bursts, compact object mergers, and gravitational waves.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 10, 2023
  2. A coupled phase-field and hydrodynamic model is introduced to describe a two-phase, weakly compressible smectic (layered phase) in contact with an isotropic fluid of different density. A non-conserved smectic order parameter is coupled to a conserved mass density in order to accommodate non-solenoidal flows near the smectic–isotropic boundary arising from density contrast between the two phases. The model aims to describe morphological transitions in smectic thin films under heat treatment, in which arrays of focal conic defects evolve into conical pyramids and concentric rings through curvature dependent evaporation of smectic layers. The model leads to an extended thermodynamic relation at a curved surface that includes its Gaussian curvature, non-classical stresses at the boundary and flows arising from density gradients. The temporal evolution given by the model conserves the overall mass of the liquid crystal while still allowing for the modulated smectic structure to grow or shrink. A numerical solution of the governing equations reveals that pyramidal domains are sculpted at the center of focal conics upon a temperature increase, which display tangential flows at their surface. Other cases investigated include the possible coalescence of two cylindrical stacks of smectic layers, formation of droplets, and the interactions between focal conic domainsmore »through flow.« less