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  1. Abstract

    Soil hydrology provides important background for understanding the fate of organic carbon (OC) buried by geomorphic processes as well as the influence of runoff, infiltration, and plant root uptake on long‐term erosion and landscape evolution. We modeled the hydrology of a 4.5‐m loess‐paleosol sequence on an eroding tableland in the U.S. central Great Plains using Hydrus 1D, a numerical unsaturated flow model, parameterized with high resolution measurements of the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves, which were distinct for the loess and paleosols. We hypothesized that (a) the connection of paleosols to modern climate depends on their burial depth, (b) paleosols in the root zone would have broader pore‐size distributions than unweathered loess, and (c) this broader pore‐size distribution increased root water uptake and made vegetation more resilient to drought, increasing the stability of loess tablelands despite high erodibility and high local relief. Four years with varying total annual precipitation were simulated for the observed profile and two hypothetical profiles, one without paleosols and another with a shallow, strongly developed paleosol. In these simulations, soil moisture in shallow paleosols responds quickly to precipitation while a deeply buried paleosol is largely disconnected from the modern climate, contributing to buried OC preservation. Contrary to our expectation, the presence of paleosols did not increase root uptake relative to unweathered loess in either wet or dry years. The unweathered coarse loess we studied may have an optimal pore‐size distribution for root uptake, providing an alternative hypothesis for why highly erodible loess tablelands persist.

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  2. Abstract

    We search for gravitational-wave (GW) transients associated with fast radio bursts (FRBs) detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project, during the first part of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 April 1 15:00 UTC–2019 October 1 15:00 UTC). Triggers from 22 FRBs were analyzed with a search that targets both binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers. A targeted search for generic GW transients was conducted on 40 FRBs. We find no significant evidence for a GW association in either search. Given the large uncertainties in the distances of our FRB sample, we are unable to exclude the possibility of a GW association. Assessing the volumetric event rates of both FRB and binary mergers, an association is limited to 15% of the FRB population for BNS mergers or 1% for NSBH mergers. We report 90% confidence lower bounds on the distance to each FRB for a range of GW progenitor models and set upper limits on the energy emitted through GWs for a range of emission scenarios. We find values of order 1051–1057erg for models with central GW frequencies in the range 70–3560 Hz. At the sensitivity of this search, we find these limits to be above the predicted GW emissions for the models considered. We also find no significant coincident detection of GWs with the repeater, FRB 20200120E, which is the closest known extragalactic FRB.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
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