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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  2. We employ force-field molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the kinetics of nucleation to new liquid or solid phases in a dense gas of particles, seeded with ions. We use precise atomic pair interactions, with physically correct long-range behaviour, between argon atoms and protons. Time dependence of molecular cluster formation is analysed at different proton concentration, temperature and argon gas density. The modified phase transitions with proton seeding of the argon gas are identified and analysed. The seeding of the gas enhances the formation of nano-size atomic clusters and their aggregation. The strong attraction between protons and bath gas atoms stabilisesmore »large nano-clusters and the critical temperature for evaporation. An analytical model is proposed to describe the stability of argon-proton droplets and is compared with the molecular dynamics simulations.« less