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  1. Diatoms are a group of single-celled photosynthetic algae that use biochemical pathways to bio-mineralize and self-assemble three-dimensional photonic crystals with unique photonic and micro- & nano-fluidic properties. In recent years, diatom biosilica has been used in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based optofluidic sensors for detection of a variety of chemical and biological molecules. In this paper, we present a study to develop a microfluidic pumping system using super-hydrophilic diatom thin films. The desire to develop such a system stems from the requirement to create a low-cost, self-powered microfluidic pumping system that can sustain a continuous flow over an extended periodmore »of time. The diatom biosilica acts not only as the driving force behind the flow, but also serves as ultra-sensitive SERS substrates that allows for trace detection of various molecules. Liquid is drawn from a reservoir to the tip of a 150μm inner diameter capillary tube positioned directly over the diatom film. A thin and long horizontal reservoir is used to prevent flooding on the diatom film when the liquid is initially drawn to the diatom film through a capillary tube from the reservoir. The connection of the meniscus from the capillary to the film was maintained from a horizontal reservoir for a recorded time of 20 hours and 32 minutes before the partially filled reservoir emptied. Flow rates of 0.38, 0.22 and 0.16µL/min were achieved for square biosilica thin films of 49mm2, 25mm2, and 9mm2 at a temperature of 63̊F and 45% relative humidity respectively. A temperature-controlled system was introduced for the 49mm2 substrate and flow rates of 0.60, 0.82, 0.93, and 1.15µL/min were observed at 72, 77, 86, and 95̊F at 21% relative humidity respectively. More testing and analysis will be performed to test the operation limits of the proposed self-powered microfluidic system.« less
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
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  5. Abstract We search for gravitational-wave signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift satellites during the second half of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 November 1 15:00 UTC–2020 March 27 17:00 UTC). We conduct two independent searches: a generic gravitational-wave transients search to analyze 86 GRBs and an analysis to target binary mergers with at least one neutron star as short GRB progenitors for 17 events. We find no significant evidence for gravitational-wave signals associated with any of these GRBs. A weighted binomial test of the combined results finds nomore »evidence for subthreshold gravitational-wave signals associated with this GRB ensemble either. We use several source types and signal morphologies during the searches, resulting in lower bounds on the estimated distance to each GRB. Finally, we constrain the population of low-luminosity short GRBs using results from the first to the third observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. The resulting population is in accordance with the local binary neutron star merger rate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
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