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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. In the present work, the macroscopic governing equations governing the heat and mass transfer for a general multicomponent system are derived via a systematic nonequilibrium thermodynamics framework. In contrast to previous approaches, the relative (with respect to the mass average velocity) component mass fluxes (relative species momenta) and the heat flux are treated explicitly, in complete analogy with the momentum flux. The framework followed here, in addition to allowing for the description of relaxation phenomena in heat and mass transfer, establishes to the fullest the analogy between all transport processes, momentum, heat, and mass transfer, toward which R. B. Birdmore »contributed so much with his work. The inclusion of heat flux-based momentum as an additional variable allows for the description of relaxation phenomena in heat transfer as well as of mixed (Soret and Dufour) effects, coupling heat and mass transfer. The resulting models are Galilean invariant, thereby resolving a conundrum in the field, and always respect the second law of thermodynamics, for appropriate selection of transport parameters. The general flux-based dynamic equations reduce to the traditional transport equations in the limit when mass species and heat relaxation effects are negligible and are fully consistent with the equations established from the application of kinetic theory in the limit of dilute gases. As an added benefit, for the particular example case of hyperbolic diffusion we illustrate the application of the proposed models as a method to allow the use of powerful numerical solvers normally not available for solving mass transfer models more generally.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. Mask wearing and physical distancing are effective at preventing COVID-19 transmission. Little is known about the practice of these behaviors during physical activity (PA). In this longitudinal study, direct observation was used to describe COVID-19 prevention behaviors among physically active individuals. The Viral Transmission Scan (VT-Scan) was used to assess COVID-19 prevention behaviors of people standing, sitting, walking, jogging, and cycling in educational, retail, and residential areas. The VT-Scan was performed once per week over 22 weeks between 11:00 a.m. and 2:30 p.m. Information was manually extracted from videos collected during VT-Scans. A total of 4153 people were described, ofmore »which 71.2% were physically active, 80.0% were 18–30 years of age, 14.0% were non-white, 61.0% were female, and were 19.6% obese. Individuals not engaged in PA were less compliant with COVID-19 prevention behaviors than physically active people. Compliance differed by PA type, with walkers less compliant with COVID-19 prevention behaviors than joggers and cyclists. Among those physically active, non-compliance with COVID-19 prevention behaviors was higher in 18–30-year-olds, whites, and men. Engagement in COVID-19 prevention behaviors varies as a function of PA. Efforts to promote compliance with recommendations may benefit from tailored messaging, taking into account PA participation, PA type, and characteristics of physically active individuals.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Due to the potential impact on the diagnosis and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, work on the rheology of blood has significantly expanded in the last decade, both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, blood has been confirmed to demonstrate a variety of non-Newtonian rheological characteristics, including pseudoplasticity, viscoelasticity, and thixotropy. New rheological experiments and the development of more controlled experimental protocols on more extensive, broadly physiologically characterized, human blood samples demonstrate the sensitivity of aspects of hemorheology to several physiological factors. For example, at high shear rates the red blood cells elastically deform, imparting viscoelasticity, while at low shear rates, theymore »form “rouleaux” structures that impart additional, thixotropic behavior. In addition to the advances in experimental methods and validated data sets, significant advances have also been made in both microscopic simulations and macroscopic, continuum, modeling, as well as novel, multiscale approaches. We outline and evaluate the most promising of these recent developments. Although we primarily focus on human blood rheology, we also discuss recent observations on variations observed across some animal species that provide some indication on evolutionary effects.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 8, 2022
  5. The COVID-19 pandemic severely affected many aspects of human life. While most health agencies agree mask wearing and physical distancing reduce viral transmission, efforts to improve the assessment of these behaviors are lacking. This study aimed to develop a direct observation video method [Viral Transmission (VT)-Scan] for assessing COVID-19 transmission behaviors and related factors (e.g., environmental setting). A wearable video device (WVD) was used to obtain videos of outdoor, public areas. The videos were examined to extract relevant information. All outcomes displayed good to excellent intra- and inter-reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients ranging from 0.836 to 0.997. The majority ofmore »people had a mask (60.8%) but 22.1% of them wore it improperly, 45.4% were not physical distancing, and 27.6% were simultaneously mask and physical distancing non-compliant. Transmission behaviors varied by demographics with white, obese males least likely to be mask-compliant and white, obese females least likely to physical distance. Certain environments (e.g., crosswalks) were identified as “hot spots” where higher rates of adverse transmission behaviors occurred. This study introduces a reliable method for obtaining objective data on COVID-19 transmission behaviors and related factors which may be useful for agent-based modeling and policy formation.« less