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  1. Importance The p.Asp67Tyr genetic variant in the GJA3 gene is responsible for congenital cataracts in a family with a high incidence of glaucoma following cataract surgery. Objective To describe the clinical features of a family with a strong association between congenital cataracts and glaucoma following cataract surgery secondary to a genetic variant in the GJA3 gene ( NM_021954 .4:c.199G>T, p.Asp67Tyr). Design, Setting, and Participants This was a retrospective, observational, case series, genetic association study from the University of Iowa spanning 61 years. Examined were the ophthalmic records from 1961 through 2022 of the family members of a 4-generation pedigree with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts. Main Outcomes and Measures Frequency of glaucoma following cataract surgery and postoperative complications among family members with congenital cataract due to the p.Asp67Tyr GJA3 genetic variant. Results Medical records were available from 11 of 12 family members (7 male [63.6%]) with congenital cataract with a mean (SD) follow-up of 30 (21.7) years (range, 0.2-61 years). Eight of 9 patients with congenital cataracts developed glaucoma, and 8 of 8 patients who had cataract surgery at age 2 years or younger developed glaucoma following cataract surgery. The only family member with congenital cataracts who did not develop glaucoma had delayed cataract surgery until 12 and 21 years of age. Five of 11 family members (45.5%) had retinal detachments after cataract extraction and vitrectomy. No patients developed retinal detachments after prophylactic 360-degree endolaser. Conclusions and Relevance The GJA3 genetic variant, p.Asp67Tyr, was identified in a 4-generation congenital cataract pedigree from Iowa. This report suggests that patients with congenital cataract due to some GJA3 genetic variants may be at especially high risk for glaucoma following cataract surgery. Retinal detachments after cataract extraction in the first 2 years of life were also common in this family, and prophylactic retinal endolaser may be indicated at the time of surgery. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Seafloor pressure sensor data is emerging as a promising approach to resolve vertical displacement of the seafloor in the offshore reaches of subduction zones, particularly in response to slow slip events (SSEs), although such signals are challenging to resolve due to sensor drift and oceanographic signals. Constraining offshore SSE slip distribution is of key importance to understanding earthquake and tsunami hazards posed by subduction zones. We processed seafloor pressure data from January to October 2019 acquired at the Hikurangi subduction zone, offshore New Zealand, to estimate vertical displacement associated with a large SSE that occurred beneath the seafloor array. The experiment included three self‐calibrating sensors designed to remove sensor drift, which, together with ocean general circulation models, were essential to the identification and correction of long‐period ocean variability remaining in the data after applying traditional processing techniques. We estimate that long‐period oceanographic signals that were not synchronous between pressure sensors and reference sites influenced our inferred displacements by 0.3–2.6 cm, suggesting that regionally deployed reference sites alone may not provide sufficient ocean noise correction. After incorporating long‐period ocean variability corrections into the processing, we calculate 1.0–3.3 cm of uplift during the SSE offshore Gisborne at northern Hikurangi, and 1.1–2.7 cm of uplift offshore the Hawke's Bay area at central Hikurangi. Some Hawke Bay displacements detected by pressure sensors near the trench were delayed by 6 weeks compared to the timing of slip onset detected by onshore Global Navigation Satellite System sites, suggesting updip migration of the SSE.

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  3. Abstract

    We search for gravitational-wave (GW) transients associated with fast radio bursts (FRBs) detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project, during the first part of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 April 1 15:00 UTC–2019 October 1 15:00 UTC). Triggers from 22 FRBs were analyzed with a search that targets both binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers. A targeted search for generic GW transients was conducted on 40 FRBs. We find no significant evidence for a GW association in either search. Given the large uncertainties in the distances of our FRB sample, we are unable to exclude the possibility of a GW association. Assessing the volumetric event rates of both FRB and binary mergers, an association is limited to 15% of the FRB population for BNS mergers or 1% for NSBH mergers. We report 90% confidence lower bounds on the distance to each FRB for a range of GW progenitor models and set upper limits on the energy emitted through GWs for a range of emission scenarios. We find values of order 1051–1057erg for models with central GW frequencies in the range 70–3560 Hz. At the sensitivity of this search, we find these limits to be above the predicted GW emissions for the models considered. We also find no significant coincident detection of GWs with the repeater, FRB 20200120E, which is the closest known extragalactic FRB.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  4. Abstract

    We constrain orientations of the horizontal stress field from borehole image data in a transect across the Hikurangi Subduction Margin. This region experiences NW‐SE convergence and is the site of recurrent slow slip events. The direction of the horizontal maximum stress is E‐W at an active splay thrust fault near the subduction margin trench. This trend changes to NNW‐SSE in a forearc trench slope basin on the offshore accretionary wedge, and to NE‐SW in the onshore forearc. Multiple, tectonic, and geological processes, either individually or in concert, may explain this variability. The observed offshore to onshore stress rotation may reflect a change from dominantly compressional tectonics at the deformation front, to a strike‐slip and/or extensional tectonic regime closer to the Taupo Volcanic Zone, further inland. In addition, the offshore stress may be affected by topography and/or stress rotation around subducting seamounts, and/or temporal stress changes during the slow slip cycle.

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  5. Abstract The global network of gravitational-wave observatories now includes five detectors, namely LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, Virgo, KAGRA, and GEO 600. These detectors collected data during their third observing run, O3, composed of three phases: O3a starting in 2019 April and lasting six months, O3b starting in 2019 November and lasting five months, and O3GK starting in 2020 April and lasting two weeks. In this paper we describe these data and various other science products that can be freely accessed through the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center at . The main data set, consisting of the gravitational-wave strain time series that contains the astrophysical signals, is released together with supporting data useful for their analysis and documentation, tutorials, as well as analysis software packages. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024
  6. Abstract We use 47 gravitational wave sources from the Third LIGO–Virgo–Kamioka Gravitational Wave Detector Gravitational Wave Transient Catalog (GWTC–3) to estimate the Hubble parameter H ( z ), including its current value, the Hubble constant H 0 . Each gravitational wave (GW) signal provides the luminosity distance to the source, and we estimate the corresponding redshift using two methods: the redshifted masses and a galaxy catalog. Using the binary black hole (BBH) redshifted masses, we simultaneously infer the source mass distribution and H ( z ). The source mass distribution displays a peak around 34 M ⊙ , followed by a drop-off. Assuming this mass scale does not evolve with the redshift results in a H ( z ) measurement, yielding H 0 = 68 − 8 + 12 km s − 1 Mpc − 1 (68% credible interval) when combined with the H 0 measurement from GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart. This represents an improvement of 17% with respect to the H 0 estimate from GWTC–1. The second method associates each GW event with its probable host galaxy in the catalog GLADE+ , statistically marginalizing over the redshifts of each event’s potential hosts. Assuming a fixed BBH population, we estimate a value of H 0 = 68 − 6 + 8 km s − 1 Mpc − 1 with the galaxy catalog method, an improvement of 42% with respect to our GWTC–1 result and 20% with respect to recent H 0 studies using GWTC–2 events. However, we show that this result is strongly impacted by assumptions about the BBH source mass distribution; the only event which is not strongly impacted by such assumptions (and is thus informative about H 0 ) is the well-localized event GW190814. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  8. Abstract We present the results of a model-based search for continuous gravitational waves from the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 using LIGO detector data from the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. This is a semicoherent search that uses details of the signal model to coherently combine data separated by less than a specified coherence time, which can be adjusted to balance sensitivity with computing cost. The search covered a range of gravitational-wave frequencies from 25 to 1600 Hz, as well as ranges in orbital speed, frequency, and phase determined from observational constraints. No significant detection candidates were found, and upper limits were set as a function of frequency. The most stringent limits, between 100 and 200 Hz, correspond to an amplitude h 0 of about 10 −25 when marginalized isotropically over the unknown inclination angle of the neutron star’s rotation axis, or less than 4 × 10 −26 assuming the optimal orientation. The sensitivity of this search is now probing amplitudes predicted by models of torque balance equilibrium. For the usual conservative model assuming accretion at the surface of the neutron star, our isotropically marginalized upper limits are close to the predicted amplitude from about 70 to 100 Hz; the limits assuming that the neutron star spin is aligned with the most likely orbital angular momentum are below the conservative torque balance predictions from 40 to 200 Hz. Assuming a broader range of accretion models, our direct limits on gravitational-wave amplitude delve into the relevant parameter space over a wide range of frequencies, to 500 Hz or more. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023