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  1. We present a multiline survey of the interstellar medium (ISM) in two z  > 6 quasar host galaxies, PJ231−20 ( z  = 6.59) and PJ308−21 ( z  = 6.23), and their two companion galaxies. Observations were carried out using the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We targeted 11 transitions including atomic fine-structure lines (FSLs) and molecular lines: [NII] 205 μm , [CI] 369 μm , CO ( J up  = 7, 10, 15, 16), H 2 O 3 12  − 2 21 , 3 21  − 3 12 , 3 03  − 2 12 , and the OH 163 μm doublet. The underlying far-infrared (FIR) continuum samples the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the respectivemore »dust emission. By combining this information with our earlier ALMA [CII] 158 μm observations, we explored the effects of star formation and black hole feedback on the ISM of the galaxies using the CLOUDY radiative transfer models. We estimated dust masses, spectral indexes, IR luminosities, and star-formation rates from the FIR continuum. The analysis of the FSLs indicates that the [CII] 158 μm and [CI] 369 μm emission arises predominantly from the neutral medium in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We find that line deficits agree with those of local luminous IR galaxies. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) reveal significant high- J CO excitation in both quasar hosts. Our CO SLED modeling of the quasar PJ231−20 shows that PDRs dominate the molecular mass and CO luminosities for J up  ≤ 7, while the J up  ≥ 10 CO emission is likely driven by X-ray dissociation regions produced by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the very center of the quasar host. The J up  > 10 lines are undetected in the other galaxies in our study. The H 2 O 3 21  − 3 12 line detection in the same quasar places this object on the L H 2 O  −  L TIR relation found for low- z sources, thus suggesting that this water vapor transition is predominantly excited by IR pumping. Models of the H 2 O SLED and of the H 2 O-to-OH 163 μm ratio point to PDR contributions with high volume and column density ( n H  ∼ 0.8 × 10 5 cm −3 , N H  = 10 24 cm −2 ) in an intense radiation field. Our analysis suggests a less highly excited medium in the companion galaxies. However, the current data do not allow us to definitively rule out an AGN in these sources, as suggested by previous studies of the same objects. This work demonstrates the power of multiline studies of FIR diagnostics in order to dissect the physical conditions in the first massive galaxies emerging from cosmic dawn.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  2. ABSTRACT V3890 Sgr is a recurrent nova that has been seen in outburst three times so far, with the most recent eruption occurring on 2019 August 27 ut. This latest outburst was followed in detail by the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, from less than a day after the eruption until the nova entered the Sun observing constraint, with a small number of additional observations after the constraint ended. The X-ray light curve shows initial hard shock emission, followed by an early start of the supersoft source phase around day 8.5, with the soft emission ceasing by day 26. Together withmore »the peak blackbody temperature of the supersoft spectrum being ∼100 eV, these timings suggest the white dwarf mass to be high, $\sim 1.3\, {\rm M_{\odot }}$. The UV photometric light curve decays monotonically, with the decay rate changing a number of times, approximately simultaneously with variations in the X-ray emission. The UV grism spectra show both line and continuum emission, with emission lines of N, C, Mg, and O being notable. These UV spectra are best dereddened using a Small Magellanic Cloud extinction law. Optical spectra from SMARTS show evidence of interaction between the nova ejecta and wind from the donor star, as well as the extended atmosphere of the red giant being flash-ionized by the supersoft X-ray photons. Data from NICER reveal a transient 83 s quasi-periodic oscillation, with a modulation amplitude of 5 per cent, adding to the sample of novae that show such short variabilities during their supersoft phase.« less
  3. ABSTRACT We present Herschel–PACS spectroscopy of four main-sequence star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.5. We detect [OI]63 μm line emission in BzK-21000 at z = 1.5213, and measure a line luminosity, $L_{\rm [O\, {\small I}]63\, \mu m} = (3.9\pm 0.7)\times 10^9$ L⊙. Our PDR modelling of the interstellar medium in BzK-21000 suggests a UV radiation field strength, G ∼ 320G0, and gas density, n ∼ 1800 cm−3, consistent with previous LVG modelling of the molecular CO line excitation. The other three targets in our sample are individually undetected in these data, and we perform a spectral stacking analysis which yields a detection of theirmore »average emission and an [O i]63 μm line luminosity, $L_{\rm [O\, {\small I}]63\, \mu m} = (1.1\pm 0.2)\times 10^9$ L⊙. We find that the implied luminosity ratio, $L_{\rm [O\, {\small I}]63\, \mu m}/L_{\rm IR}$, of the undetected BzK-selected star-forming galaxies broadly agrees with that of low-redshift star-forming galaxies, while BzK-21000 has a similar ratio to that of a dusty star-forming galaxy at z ∼ 6. The high [O i]63 μm line luminosities observed in BzK-21000 and the z ∼ 1−3 dusty and sub-mm luminous star-forming galaxies may be associated with extended reservoirs of low density, cool neutral gas.« less
  4. One practical approach towards robust and stable biomimetic platforms is to generate hybrid bilayers that incorporate both lipids and block co-polymer amphiphiles. The currently limited number of reports on the interaction of glass surfaces with hybrid lipid and polymer vesicles—DOPC mixed with amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide-b-butadiene) (PEO-PBd)—describe substantially different conclusions under very similar conditions (i.e., same pH). In this study, we varied vesicle composition and solution pH in order to generate a broader picture of spontaneous hybrid lipid/polymer vesicle interactions with rigid supports. Using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we followed the interaction of hybrid lipid-polymer vesicles with borosilicate glassmore »as a function of pH. We found pH-dependent adsorption/fusion of hybrid vesicles that accounts for some of the contradictory results observed in previous studies. Our results show that the formation of hybrid lipid-polymer bilayers is highly pH dependent and indicate that the interaction between glass surfaces and hybrid DOPC/PEO-PBd can be tuned with pH.« less
  5. The ALMA-ALPINE [CII] survey is aimed at characterizing the properties of a sample of normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs). The ALMA Large Program to INvestigate (ALPINE) features 118 galaxies observed in the [CII]-158 μ m line and far infrared (FIR) continuum emission during the period of rapid mass assembly, right after the end of the HI reionization, at redshifts of 4 <   z  <  6. We present the survey science goals, the observational strategy, and the sample selection of the 118 galaxies observed with ALMA, with an average beam minor axis of about 0.85″, or ∼5 kpc at the median redshiftmore »of the survey. The properties of the sample are described, including spectroscopic redshifts derived from the UV-rest frame, stellar masses, and star-formation rates obtained from a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. The observed properties derived from the ALMA data are presented and discussed in terms of the overall detection rate in [CII] and FIR continuum, with the observed signal-to-noise distribution. The sample is representative of the SFG population in the main sequence at these redshifts. The overall detection rate in [CII] is 64% for a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) threshold larger than 3.5 corresponding to a 95% purity (40% detection rate for S / N  >  5). Based on a visual inspection of the [CII] data cubes together with the large wealth of ancillary data, we find a surprisingly wide range of galaxy types, including 40% that are mergers, 20% extended and dispersion-dominated, 13% compact, and 11% rotating discs, with the remaining 16% too faint to be classified. This diversity indicates that a wide array of physical processes must be at work at this epoch, first and foremost, those of galaxy mergers. This paper sets a reference sample for the gas distribution in normal SFGs at 4 <   z  <  6, a key epoch in galaxy assembly, which is ideally suited for studies with future facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs).« less
  6. Aims. We present the results of three commissioning H  I observations obtained with the MeerKAT radio telescope. These observations make up part of the preparation for the forthcoming MHONGOOSE nearby galaxy survey, which is a MeerKAT large survey project that will study the accretion of gas in galaxies and the link between gas and star formation. Methods. We used the available H  I data sets, along with ancillary data at other wavelengths, to study the morphology of the MHONGOOSE sample galaxy, ESO 302-G014, which is a nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy. Results. We find that ESO 302-G014 has a lopsided, asymmetricmore »outer disc with a low column density. In addition, we find a tail or filament of H  I clouds extending away from the galaxy, as well as an isolated H  I cloud some 20 kpc to the south of the galaxy. We suggest that these features indicate a minor interaction with a low-mass galaxy. Optical imaging shows a possible dwarf galaxy near the tail, but based on the current data, we cannot confirm any association with ESO 302-G014. Nonetheless, an interaction scenario with some kind of low-mass companion is still supported by the presence of a significant amount of molecular gas, which is almost equal to the stellar mass, and a number of prominent stellar clusters, which suggest recently triggered star formation. Conclusions. These data show that MeerKAT produces exquisite imaging data. The forthcoming full-depth survey observations of ESO 302-G014 and other sample galaxies will, therefore, offer insights into the fate of neutral gas as it moves from the intergalactic medium onto galaxies.« less