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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. A predicted type-II staggered band alignment with an approximately 1.4 eV valence band offset at the ZnGeN2/GaN heterointerface has inspired novel band-engineered III-N/ZnGeN2 heterostructure-based device designs for applications in high performance optoelectronics. We report on the determination of the valence band offset between metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown (ZnGe)1−xGa2xN2, for x = 0 and 0.06, and GaN using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The valence band of ZnGeN2 was found to lie 1.45–1.65 eV above that of GaN. This result agrees well with the value predicted by first-principles density functional theory calculations using the local density approximation for the potential profile and quasiparticle self-consistent GW calculations of the band edge states relative to the potential. For (ZnGe)0.94Ga0.12N2 the value was determined to be 1.29 eV, ∼10%–20% lower than that of ZnGeN2. The experimental determination of the large band offset between ZnGeN2 and GaN provides promising alternative solutions to address challenges faced with pure III-nitride-based structures and devices.
  3. The natural band alignment between various II-IV-N$_2$ and III-N and ZnO semiconductors are determined by means of first-principles surface calculations of their electron affinities. While these ignore specific interface dipole formation and strain effects, they provide a first guidance to the construction of heterojunction devices involving this family of materials.