skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Wang, A."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. The monitoring of data streams with a network structure have drawn increasing attention due to its wide applications in modern process control. In these applications, high-dimensional sensor nodes are interconnected with an underlying network topology. In such a case, abnormalities occurring to any node may propagate dynamically across the network and cause changes of other nodes over time. Furthermore, high dimensionality of such data significantly increased the cost of resources for data transmission and computation, such that only partial observations can be transmitted or processed in practice. Overall, how to quickly detect abnormalities in such large networks with resource constraints remains a challenge, especially due to the sampling uncertainty under the dynamic anomaly occurrences and network-based patterns. In this paper, we incorporate network structure information into the monitoring and adaptive sampling methodologies for quick anomaly detection in large networks where only partial observations are available. We develop a general monitoring and adaptive sampling method and further extend it to the case with memory constraints, both of which exploit network distance and centrality information for better process monitoring and identification of abnormalities. Theoretical investigations of the proposed methods demonstrate their sampling efficiency on balancing between exploration and exploitation, as well asmore »the detection performance guarantee. Numerical simulations and a case study on power network have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed methods in detecting various types of shifts. Note to Practitioners —Continuous monitoring of networks for anomalous events is critical for a large number of applications involving power networks, computer networks, epidemiological surveillance, social networks, etc. This paper aims at addressing the challenges in monitoring large networks in cases where monitoring resources are limited such that only a subset of nodes in the network is observable. Specifically, we integrate network structure information of nodes for constructing sequential detection methods via effective data augmentation, and for designing adaptive sampling algorithms to observe suspicious nodes that are likely to be abnormal. Then, the method is further generalized to the case that the memory of the computation is also constrained due to the network size. The developed method is greatly beneficial and effective for various anomaly patterns, especially when the initial anomaly randomly occurs to nodes in the network. The proposed methods are demonstrated to be capable of quickly detecting changes in the network and dynamically changes the sampling priority based on online observations in various cases, as shown in the theoretical investigation, simulations and case studies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 19, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 13, 2023
  3. 5G has received significant interest from commercial as well as defense industries. However, resiliency in 5G remains a major concern for its use in military and defense applications. In this paper, we explore physical layer resiliency enhancements for 5G and use narrow-band Internet of Things (NB-IoT) as a study case. Two physical layer modifications, frequency hopping, and direct sequence spreading, are analyzed from the standpoint of implementation and performance. Simulation results show that these techniques are effective to harden the resiliency of the physical layer to interference and jamming. A discussion of protocol considerations for 5G and beyond is provided based on the results
  4. Diatoms are a group of single-celled photosynthetic algae that use biochemical pathways to bio-mineralize and self-assemble three-dimensional photonic crystals with unique photonic and micro- & nano-fluidic properties. In recent years, diatom biosilica has been used in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based optofluidic sensors for detection of a variety of chemical and biological molecules. In this paper, we present a study to develop a microfluidic pumping system using super-hydrophilic diatom thin films. The desire to develop such a system stems from the requirement to create a low-cost, self-powered microfluidic pumping system that can sustain a continuous flow over an extended period of time. The diatom biosilica acts not only as the driving force behind the flow, but also serves as ultra-sensitive SERS substrates that allows for trace detection of various molecules. Liquid is drawn from a reservoir to the tip of a 150μm inner diameter capillary tube positioned directly over the diatom film. A thin and long horizontal reservoir is used to prevent flooding on the diatom film when the liquid is initially drawn to the diatom film through a capillary tube from the reservoir. The connection of the meniscus from the capillary to the film was maintained from a horizontalmore »reservoir for a recorded time of 20 hours and 32 minutes before the partially filled reservoir emptied. Flow rates of 0.38, 0.22 and 0.16µL/min were achieved for square biosilica thin films of 49mm2, 25mm2, and 9mm2 at a temperature of 63̊F and 45% relative humidity respectively. A temperature-controlled system was introduced for the 49mm2 substrate and flow rates of 0.60, 0.82, 0.93, and 1.15µL/min were observed at 72, 77, 86, and 95̊F at 21% relative humidity respectively. More testing and analysis will be performed to test the operation limits of the proposed self-powered microfluidic system.« less
  5. Abstract

    The nature of dark matter and properties of neutrinos are among the most pressing issues in contemporary particle physics. The dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber is the leading technology to cover the available parameter space for weakly interacting massive particles, while featuring extensive sensitivity to many alternative dark matter candidates. These detectors can also study neutrinos through neutrinoless double-beta decay and through a variety of astrophysical sources. A next-generation xenon-based detector will therefore be a true multi-purpose observatory to significantly advance particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, solar physics, and cosmology. This review article presents the science cases for such a detector.

  6. We report an approach in diagnostic imaging based on nanoscale-resolution scanning of surfaces of cells collected from body fluids using a recent modality of atomic force microscopy (AFM), subresonance tapping, and machine-leaning analysis. The surface parameters, which are typically used in engineering to describe surfaces, are used to classify cells. The method is applied to the detection of bladder cancer, which is one of the most common human malignancies and the most expensive cancer to treat. The frequent visual examinations of bladder (cytoscopy) required for follow-up are not only uncomfortable for the patient but a serious cost for the health care system. Our method addresses an unmet need in noninvasive and accurate detection of bladder cancer, which may eliminate unnecessary and expensive cystoscopies. The method, which evaluates cells collected from urine, shows 94% diagnostic accuracy when examining five cells per patient’s urine sample. It is a statistically significant improvement (P< 0.05) in diagnostic accuracy compared with the currently used clinical standard, cystoscopy, as verified on 43 control and 25 bladder cancer patients.