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Creators/Authors contains: "Wang, Alan X."

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  1. Abstract

    Silicon microring modulator plays a critical role in energy-efficient optical interconnect and optical computing owing to its ultra-compact footprint and capability for on-chip wavelength-division multiplexing. However, existing silicon microring modulators usually require more than 2 V of driving voltage (Vpp), which is limited by both material properties and device structures. Here, we present a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor microring modulator through heterogeneous integration between silicon photonics and titanium-doped indium oxide, which is a high-mobility transparent conductive oxide (TCO) with a strong plasma dispersion effect. The device is co-fabricated by Intel’s photonics fab and our in-house TCO patterning processes, which exhibits a high modulation efficiency of 117 pm/V and consequently can be driven by a very low Vppof 0.8 V. At a 11 GHz modulation bandwidth where the modulator is limited by the RC bandwidth, we obtained 25 Gb/s clear eye diagrams with energy efficiency of 53 fJ/bit.

     
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  2. This paper reviews recent research progress of photonic integrated circuits using transparent conductive oxides. Especially, the heterogeneous integration of transparent conductive oxides with silicon photonics shows great potential for energy-efficient optical interconnects.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Silicon microring resonators (Si-MRRs) play essential roles in on-chip wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems due to their ultra-compact size and low energy consumption. However, the resonant wavelength of Si-MRRs is very sensitive to temperature fluctuations and fabrication process variation. Typically, each Si-MRR in the WDM system requires precise wavelength control by free carrier injection using PIN diodes or thermal heaters that consume high power. This work experimentally demonstrates gate-tuning on-chip WDM filters for the first time with large wavelength coverage for the entire channel spacing using a Si-MRR array driven by high mobility titanium-doped indium oxide (ITiO) gates. The integrated Si-MRRs achieve unprecedented wavelength tunability up to 589 pm/V, or VπL of 0.050 V cm with a high-quality factor of 5200. The on-chip WDM filters, which consist of four cascaded ITiO-driven Si-MRRs, can be continuously tuned across the 1543–1548 nm wavelength range by gate biases with near-zero power consumption.

     
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  4. Indoor free-space optical communication (FSO) provides orders of magnitude larger usable bandwidth compared to radio-frequency links but suffers from an intrinsic trade-off between areal coverage and received power. In this paper, we report a dynamic indoor FSO system enabled by a line-of-sight optical link featuring advanced beam control capabilities. The optical link herein utilizes a passive target acquisition scheme by combining a beam steering and beam shaping transmitter with a receiver adorned with a ring-shaped retroreflector. When controlled by an efficient beam scanning algorithm, the transmitter is capable of locating the receiver with millimeter-scale accuracy over a distance of 3 m with a full viewing angle of ±11.25in the vertical direction and ±18.75in the horizontal direction within 1.162±0.005s, regardless of the receiver’s positions. We also demonstrate 1 Gbit/s data rate with bit error rates below 4×10−7using an 850 nm laser diode with only 2 mW of output power.

     
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  5. We demonstrated efficient gate-tuning on-chip wavelength division multiplexing filters using a silicon microring resonator array driven by high-mobility titanium-doped indium oxide gates. It shows extensive wavelength coverage for entire channel spacing over 5 nm.

     
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  6. Abstract Compared with traditional Fabry–Perot optical filters, plasmonic color filters could greatly remedy the complexity and reduce the cost of manufacturing. In this paper we present end-to-end demonstration of visible light spectroscopy based on highly selective plasmonic color filter array based on resonant grating structure. The spectra of 6 assorted samples were measured using an array of 20 narrowband color filters and detected signals were used to reconstruct original spectra by using new unmixing algorithm and by solving least squares problem with smoothing regularization. The original spectra were reconstructed with less than 0.137 root mean squared error. This works shows promise towards fully integrating plasmonic color filter array in imagers used in hyperspectral cameras. 
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  7. Detection of illicit drug residues from wastewater provides a new route toward community-level assessment of drug abuse that is critical to public health. However, traditional chemistry analytical tools such as high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) cannot meet the large-scale testing requirement in terms of cost, promptness, and convenience of use. In this article, we demonstrated ultra-sensitive and portable surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensing (SERS) of fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, from sewage water and achieved quantitative analysis through principal component analysis and partial least-squares regression. The SERS substrates adopted in this application were synthesized by in situ growth of silver nanoparticles on diatomaceous earth films, which show ultra-high sensitivity down to 10 parts per trillion in artificially contaminated tap water in the lab using a commercial portable Raman spectrometer. Based on training data from artificially contaminated tap water, we predicted the fentanyl concentration in the sewage water from a wastewater treatment plant to be 0.8 parts per billion (ppb). As a comparison, the HPLC-MS confirmed the fentanyl concentration was below 1 ppb but failed to provide a specific value of the concentration since the concentration was too low. In addition, we further proved the validity of our SERS sensing technique by comparing SERS results from multiple sewage water treatment plants, and the results are consistent with the public health data from our local health authority. Such SERS sensing technique with ultra-high sensitivity down to sub-ppb level proved its feasibility for point-of-care detection of illicit drugs from sewage water, which is crucial to assess public health. 
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  8. A novel characterization method is proposed to extract the optical frequency field-effect mobility (μop,FE) of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials by a tunable silicon microring resonator with a heterogeneously integrated titanium-doped indium oxide(ITiO)/SiO2/siliconmetal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. By operating the microring in the accumulation mode, the quality factor and resonance wavelength shift are measured and subsequently used to derive theμop,FEin the ultra-thin accumulation layer. Experimental results demonstrate that theμop,FEof ITiO increases from 25.3 to38.4  cm2V1s1with increasing gate voltages, which shows a similar trend as that at the electric frequency.

     
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