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  5. Abstract Selective conversion of methane (CH 4 ) into value-added chemicals represents a grand challenge for the efficient utilization of rising hydrocarbon sources. We report here dimeric copper centers supported on graphitic carbon nitride (denoted as Cu 2 @C 3 N 4 ) as advanced catalysts for CH 4 partial oxidation. The copper-dimer catalysts demonstrate high selectivity for partial oxidation of methane under both thermo- and photocatalytic reaction conditions, with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) being used as the oxidizer, respectively. In particular, the photocatalytic oxidation of CH 4 with O 2 achieves >10% conversion, and >98% selectivity toward methyl oxygenates and a mass-specific activity of 1399.3 mmol g Cu −1 h −1 . Mechanistic studies reveal that the high reactivity of Cu 2 @C 3 N 4 can be ascribed to symphonic mechanisms among the bridging oxygen, the two copper sites and the semiconducting C 3 N 4 substrate, which do not only facilitate the heterolytic scission of C-H bond, but also promotes H 2 O 2 and O 2 activation in thermo- and photocatalysis, respectively.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  6. Despite recent promising results on semi-supervised learning (SSL), data imbalance, particularly in the unlabeled dataset, could significantly impact the training performance of a SSL algorithm if there is a mismatch between the expected and actual class distributions. The efforts on how to construct a robust SSL framework that can effectively learn from datasets with unknown distributions remain limited. We first investigate the feasibility of adding weights to the consistency loss and then we verify the necessity of smoothed weighting schemes. Based on this study, we propose a self-adaptive algorithm, named Smoothed Adaptive Weighting (SAW). SAW is designed to enhance the robustness of SSL by estimating the learning difficulty of each class and synthesizing the weights in the consistency loss based on such estimation. We show that SAW can complement recent consistency-based SSL algorithms and improve their reliability on various datasets including three standard datasets and one gigapixel medical imaging application without making any assumptions about the distribution of the unlabeled set.
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  10. Abstract AP-1 and AP-2 adaptor protein complexes mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane, respectively. Whereas AP-1 is required for trafficking to plasma membrane and vacuoles, AP-2 mediates endocytosis. These AP complexes consist of four subunits (adaptins): two large subunits (β1 and γ for AP-1 and β2 and α for AP-2), a medium subunit μ, and a small subunit σ. In general, adaptins are unique to each AP complex, with the exception of β subunits that are shared by AP-1 and AP-2 in some invertebrates. Here, we show that the two putative Arabidopsis thaliana AP1/2β adaptins co-assemble with both AP-1 and AP-2 subunits and regulate exocytosis and endocytosis in root cells, consistent with their dual localization at the TGN and plasma membrane. Deletion of both β adaptins is lethal in plants. We identified a critical role of β adaptins in pollen wall formation and reproduction, involving the regulation of membrane trafficking in the tapetum and pollen germination. In tapetal cells, β adaptins localize almost exclusively to the TGN and mediate exocytosis of the plasma membrane transporters such as ABCG9 and ABCG16. This study highlights the essential role of AP1/2β adaptins in plants and their specializedmore »roles in specific cell types.« less
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